Use Caution When Searching for Supplements
Dietary supplements—vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, plus substances such as enzymes, organ tissues, and metabolites—make up a significant portion of the CAM industry. Information on these products can easily be found on the Internet. And yet, the effectiveness of many of these supplements remains unproven. Here are some things you need to know when searching CAM websites.
What’s on the Internet?There’s no shortage of data regarding dietary supplements on the Internet. Many sites dedicated to oral health supplements are retail sites selling products or linked directly to a vendor. Many of these sites claim to treat, prevent, diagnose, or even cure specific diseases. But how credible are these claims? Other sites are personal sites without links to vendors; government, industry or academic sites describing particular supplements; and sites containing referenced articles about the supplements.
False ClaimsWeb-based health claims about supplements are not always true. Websites may contain incorrect or misleading statements, some of which can directly result in serious harm to consumers.
Failure to Disclose InformationHowever, it is not only the claims made on these websites that can be misleading. The information many sites choose not to disclose can be equally dangerous. Some retail CAM websites leave out the standard federal disclaimer, which informs the user that the website’s information is general in nature and cannot take the place of medical evaluation, diagnoses, and treatment by a health care provider. Many do not disclose potential adverse health effects such as heart attacks, strokes, arrhythmias, increased blood pressure, and heart palpitations. Others leave out the recommended dosage of supplements. The information on some websites that is intended to enhance your health may actually jeopardize it.
Lack of FDA RegulationThe 1994 passage of the Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which states that manufacturers don’t have to prove the safety or efficacy of a dietary supplement before it is placed on the market, limited the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) control over dietary supplements. The act also made it easier for less-than-reputable information regarding dietary supplements to be posted on the Internet.Although the DSHEA stripped some of the FDA control over dietary supplements and placed the burden of determining the safety and efficacy of these supplements more heavily on the consumer, it did not leave consumers completely without guidance.
Government Supports Research on Dietary SupplementsWhen the DSHEA passed, Congress established the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to promote a greater understanding of dietary supplements. To this end, the ODS evaluates scientific information on supplements, stimulates and supports research, and works to educate the public. The ODS Web site contains a database of federally funded research projects on dietary supplements. If you have questions about the ingredients found in dietary supplements, as well as related health outcomes and biological effects, you can access the ODS database to learn more.
Tips for Navigating CAM WebsitesPaying close attention to the language CAM websites use to describe supplements can also alert you to false or misleading information. Beware of the following red flags:
- Vague claims—such as “breakthrough,” “miracle cure,” and “magical”—that present no legitimate research to support them
- Use of pseudomedical jargon, such as detoxify or purify, to describe a product’s effects
- Claims that a product is backed by scientific studies, without references to those studies
- Failure to list side effects
- Accusations that the government, the medical profession, or drug companies are suppressing information about a given supplement
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS)—National Institutes of Health
Dietitians of Canada
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. Health.gov website. Available at: http://www.health.gov/dietsupp/ch1.htm. Accessed July 22, 2014.
Dietary Supplements. US Food & Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/food/dietarysupplements/default.htm. Updated May 11, 2014. Accessed July 22, 2014.
Fox S, Fallows D. Internet Health Resources. Pew Internet & American Life Project website. Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2003/Internet-Health-Resources.aspx. Published July 16, 2003. Accessed July 22, 2014.
Fox S, Rainie D. The online health care revolution. Pew Internet & American Life Project website. Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2000/The-Online-Health-Care-Revolution.aspx. Published November 26, 2000. Accessed July 22, 2014.
Tips for older dietary supplement users. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/ConsumerInformation/ucm110493.htm. Updated May 11, 2014. Accessed July 22, 2014.
Using dietary supplements wisely. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine website. Available at: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/supplements/wiseuse.htm. Updated June 2014. Accessed July 22, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 07/2014