Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

(VAP)

Definition

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an infection of the lungs that affects people who are on mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation is done with a machine that helps you breathe. Pneumonia affects the small airways and air sacs in the lungs.
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Causes

VAP is commonly caused by specific bacteria. The tube that goes into the lungs makes it easier for bacteria to enter deep into the lungs.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of VAP include:
  • Chronic lung disease
  • Conditions that affect the nervous system
  • Weakened immune system
  • Prolonged antibiotic use
  • Repeated intubation
  • Tube placed through a stoma (hole in the throat) rather than down through the nose or mouth
  • Prolonged ventilation
  • Continuous sedation
  • Prolonged period of lying on back
  • Malnutrition
  • Older age

Symptoms

VAP may cause:
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Cough
  • Thick mucus, greenish mucus, or pus-like phlegm
  • Bluish color of nails or lips
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Shortness of breath

Diagnosis

Your doctor will review your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. Tests may include:
  • Blood tests, which may include arterial blood gases to measure oxygen, carbon dioxide, and acid in the blood
  • Blood cultures
  • Cultures from below the chest tube
  • Chest x-ray
  • CT scan

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