Cardiac Tamponade

(Tamponade; Pericardial Tamponade)

Definition

Cardiac tamponade occurs when fluid builds up between the heart muscle and the surrounding tissue called the pericardium. This fluid compresses the heart. Because of this, enough blood cannot be pumped in and out of the heart.This condition can be life-threatening. Cardiac tamponade can be treated, but it can return after treatment.
Cardiac Tamponade
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Causes

Cardiac tamponade can be caused by a variety of factors and conditions, including:
  • Pericarditis —an inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart, caused by bacterial or viral infections
  • Bleeding into the pericardium, caused by injury
  • Ruptured heart muscle
  • Cancer in or near the heart

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of cardiac tamponade include:

Symptoms

Symptoms vary from mild to severe. They typically include one or more of the following:
  • Fatigue or drowsiness
  • Shortness of breath, rapid breathing, or difficulty breathing
  • Lightheadedness
  • Chest pain:
    • That extends to the neck, shoulders, or abdomen
    • Sharp or stabbing pain
    • Pain that is worsened by coughing or deep breathing
  • Discomfort that can be relieved by sitting upright or leaning forward
  • Swelling of the abdomen, veins in the arms or legs, or other areas
  • Pale skin, or skin that is blue- or gray-tinted
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Anxiety or restlessness
  • Fainting
  • Feeling of weakness
  • General discomfort

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