Risk Factors for Insomnia
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition. It is possible to develop insomnia with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing insomnia. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk. Insomnia is often the result of a behavior or a symptom of an underlying mental or physical problem. These behaviors and conditions increase your risk of having insomnia. They include:
Advanced AgePeople over the age of 60-65 are more likely to have insomnia than younger people. Older people may be less likely to sleep soundly because of bodily changes related to aging and because they may have medical conditions that disturb sleep.
Chronic DiseaseChronic diseases and associated pain may increase risk of insomnia. Some conditions include:
- Kidney disease
- Lung disease
- Alzheimer's disease
- Parkinson's disease
- Heart disease
- Heavy smoking
- Gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD)
- Sleep apnea
- Restless legs syndrome
- Alcoholism or drug abuse
MedicationsCertain medications can increase risk of sleeping problems as a side effect. These may include:
- Decongestants, and cough and cold remedies
- Diet pills
- Certain high blood pressure medications
- Theophylline—used to treat asthma
- Phenytoin—used to treat seizure disorder
- Levodopa—used to treat Parkinson’s disease
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors—used to treat depression
GenderInsomnia occurs more often in women than in men. Pregnancy and hormonal shifts can disturb sleep. Other hormonal changes, such as premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or menopause , can also can affect sleep.
Psychological FactorsStress is considered by most sleep experts to be the number one cause of short-term sleeping difficulties. Common triggers include school- or job-related pressures, a family or marriage problem, or a serious illness or death in the family. Insomnia is also a common symptom of anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder , and depression.
Lifestyle BehaviorsHabits and activities that you do during the day or night can interfere with getting a good night's sleep. These include:
- Smoking or using other tobacco products
- Drinking alcohol or beverages containing caffeine in the afternoon or evening
- Exercising close to bedtime
- Following an irregular morning and nighttime schedule
- Working or doing other mentally intense activities right before or after getting into bed
Night Shift WorkNight shift work forces you to try to sleep when activities around you and your own biological rhythms signal you to be awake. Shift workers are more likely than are employees with regular, daytime hours to fall asleep on the job because of poor sleep quality.
Long-range Jet TravelJet lag is the inability to sleep as a result of crossing many time zones in a short period of time. This can disturb your biological rhythms and deprive you of good sleep until your body can adjust to the new time zone.
Poor Sleep EnvironmentA distracting sleep environment, such as a room that's too hot or cold, too noisy, or too brightly lit, can be a barrier to sound sleep. Interruptions from children or other family members can also disrupt sleep. Other influences may be the comfort and size of your bed and the habits of your sleep partner.
Can't Sleep? What to know about insomnia. National Sleep Foundationwebsite. Available at: http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleep-related-problems/insomnia-and-sleep . Accessed May 15, 2013.
Insomnia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated April 11, 2013. Accessed May 15, 2013.
Insomnia. Quick Answers to Medical Diagnosis and Therapy. Access Medicine website. Available at: http://accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aid=3267380 . Accessed May 15, 2013
National Center on Sleep Disorders Research website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/ncsdr/index.htm . Accessed February 11, 2009.
Parmet S, Burke A, Glass RM. Insomnia. JAMA Patient Page . 2006;295(24).
- Reviewer: Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014
- Update Date: 05/28/2014
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