Emotional Intelligence: More Important Than IQ?

IMAGE Are you able to respond with the appropriate emotions in a difficult family environment? Are you empathetic with colleagues, but still able to manage stressful business situations? Are you aware of your emotions and able to cope on a daily basis? If so, you may have a high degree of what experts are calling "emotional intelligence," and it may be what brings you success in life.

Borrowing From Academia

John Mayer, PhD, a University of New Hampshire psychologist, and Peter Salovey, PhD, a psychologist at Yale University, began writing about emotional intelligence in the late 1980s. Acknowledging that emotions and intellect are often thought of as opposites, the two professors began to consider what might be the consequences of a beneficial interaction between the two.Research had already shown that strong feelings can help people perceive new alternatives or make better choices. Deep emotions, they reasoned, might even make human thinking more rational and profound. This led them to propose that "emotional intelligence"—that is, intelligence inspired by strong emotions—might in fact, make the difference between a conventional decision and a brilliant innovation. In Mayer and Salovey's example, emotional intelligence might mean the difference "between constructing the Brooklyn Bridge, with its renowned beauty, [or building]…the more mundane 59th Street Bridge." The authors also proposed that emotional intelligence "allows us to think more creatively and use our emotions to solve problems."

Blending Ideas With Science

Goleman was granted permission by the two authors to use the phrase "emotional intelligence," and then expanded on the concept in many ways. Like Salovey and Mayer, Goleman was interested in the interaction of the emotions and the intellect. However, as a science writer rather than a scholar and academician, Goleman had freer rein to generalize from a very wide range of data. Citing neurologic evidence indicating that the amygdala and the prefrontal lobes of the brain are responsible for our emotional responses while the neocortex and other limbic structures are responsible for our rational thinking mind, Goleman constructed his basic argument.Goleman reasoned that "in a sense, we have two brains, two minds, and two different kinds of intelligence: rational and emotional." He also maintained that our use of emotional intelligence is as important in life as our intellectual capability. Hence was born an autonomous notion of "emotional intelligence" that had very distinct and different characteristics from the kind of intelligence associated with IQ.

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