The Problem of Food Poisoning: Is Irradiation the Answer?
In the United States, there are millions of cases of foodborne illnesses each year. For example, eating undercooked beef that is contaminated with bacteria can lead to hospitalization and, in severe cases, even death. Irradiation has the potential to make food safer by reducing the number of harmful microorganisms. However, though these measures will eradicate bacteria, cooking meat thoroughly is still essential. Even after irradiation, meat can become recontaminated from other sources.
What Can Irradiation Eliminate?Irradiation can destroy contaminants found in raw meat, shellfish, produce, and other foods. Examples of these contaminants include bacteria and parasites. While irradiating food will reduce the risk of getting a foodborne illness, it is still important that meat and shellfish are cooked thoroughly. It is also important to remember that food that has been irradiated can still be contaminated from other sources. So, you will need to follow safety measures when handling food, such as using separate cutting boards for raw meat and other foods.
What Are the Pros and Cons of Irradiation?The process of irradiation does not leave food radioactive. It works by passing energy through the food, killing potentially lethal microorganisms and leaving no residual radiation. This method of food preservation was first approved in the 1960s. Since then, approval for fruits, vegetables, spices, poultry, and other foods has followed. While irradiation has been used for many decades, there is still controversy about this method.
Free RadicalsSome critics claim this technology produces free radicals that lead to cancer, more rapid aging, and diseases. However, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has found irradiation to be safe.
Lower Quality FoodCritics also argue that high levels of irradiation would ruin the taste, color, and texture of food. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does say that taste may be slightly altered, the nutritional value is not affected. To prevent changes that would result in lower quality food, there are ways to measure the dose of irradiation that will be needed to kill the microorganisms in a particular kind of food.
Unsanitary ConditionsCritics have spoken out against irradiation stating that it is an expensive process that allows the meat industry to continue unsanitary processing practices. Microorganisms live inside of seemingly healthy food animals, like cattle. During the slaughtering process, these microorganisms are released, contaminating the meat. The CDC claims, however, that this contamination can be resolved with careful planning. Coupling sanitation programs with irradiation is, according to the CDC, the most effective way to ensure the safety of meat products.
The Choice Is YoursThe CDC says that most consumers, once they learn about the irradiation process, will buy irradiated food. Ultimately, the choice is yours. Consider the potential benefits and risks. You will know if a product has been irradiated because of the international symbol, called the radura (shown here). The radura can be any color, and it is accompanied by the phrase "treated by irradiation." In the United States, foods approved for this process include: wheat flour, white potatoes, pork, fruits and vegetables, herbs and spices, poultry, and meat.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
US Food and Drug Administration
Dietitians of Canada
Food irradiation, position of American Diabetes Association. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100:246-253.
Food irradiation—what is it? Iowa State University, Food Safety website. Available at: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/foodsafety/irradiation/. Accessed January 22, 2014.
Food irradiation: what it means for you and your family. University of Minnesota website. Available at: http://www.health.state.mn.us/foodsafety/foods/irradiationbrochure.pdf . Updated July 1, 2002. Accessed January 22, 2014.
Food-related illness and death in the United States. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/5/5/99-0502%5Farticle.htm . Updated December 15, 2010. Accessed January 22, 2014.
Henkel J. Irradiation: a safe measure for safer food. FDA Consum. 1998 May-June;32(3):12-7.
Inspection insights: a useful food safety tool: irradiation technology. JAMA. 1996;209(3):533.
Irradiation of food. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/irradiation%5Ffood/. Updated November 19, 2009. Accessed January 22, 2014.
Irradiation and food safety. United States Department of Agriculture website. Available at: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/production-and-inspection/irradiation-and-food-safety/irradiation-food-safety-faq . Updated August 9, 2013. Accessed January 22, 2014.
Meng J, Doyle MP. Emerging issues in microbiological food safety. Annual Reviews in Nutrition. 1997;17:225-275.
Statement of Michael Jacobson, executive director, on FDA's approval of irradiation for red meat products. Center for Science in the Public Interest website. Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/new/mikeirad.htm . Published December 2, 1997. Accessed January 22, 2014.
Tauxe RV. Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997;3(4):425-34. Review.
Why oppose food irradiation?Public Citizen website. Available at: http://www.citizen.org/documents/opposeradfood.pdf .Accessed on January 22, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 01/2014
- Update Date: 01/22/2014