(Enuresis; Primary Nocturnal Enuresis; PNE)
DefinitionBed-wetting is involuntary urination during sleep in children. Typically, children become able to sleep through the night without wetting around ages 3 to 5 years. Enuresis is bed-wetting at least twice a week. There are two types of enuresis:
- Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE)—no periods of nighttime dryness
- Secondary nocturnal enuresis (SNE)—periods of nighttime dryness longer than 6 months followed by bed-wetting
|Urinary System in Child|
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CausesBed-wetting is common and not usually related to a medical condition. Some factors that may contribute to bed-wetting include:
- Bladder control that develops more slowly than normal
- Greater than average urine production at night
- A tendency for deep sleep
- Overactive bladder
- Kidney or bladder infections
- Kidney disease
- Diabetes mellitus
- Diabetes insipidus—a rare disorder in which sugar is normal but excess water is excreted by the kidney
- Congenital bladder, kidney, or neurological abnormality
- A sleep disorder, sometimes related to enlarged tonsils or adenoids
Risk FactorsFactors that increase the chance of bed-wetting include:
- Family members with a history of bed-wetting
- Significant psychosocial stressors, such as:
- Family difficulties
- Moving to a new home
- Loss of a loved one
- A new baby in the home
- Initial toilet training that was too stressful
- Physical or sexual abuse
- Chronic constipation
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
SymptomsThe child wakes up and finds the bed wet from urine.
When Should I Call My Doctor?Most children will have bladder control at night by about 5 years of age. Talk to your doctor if your child is about 5 years old and is still wetting the bed. Your doctor can help determine if the bed-wetting is just a normal part of your child's development or is caused by a condition that may need treatment.Also call your doctor if your child:
- Wets their pants in the daytime
- Has pain during urination
- Has to go to the bathroom often
- Has blood in the urine
- Has fever or chills
DiagnosisYou will be asked about your child's symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor will ask about:
- Family history of bed-wetting
- Daytime urinary patterns
- Problems urinating, such as pain or weak stream
- Usual intake of fluids
- Type of fluids consumed
- Presence of blood in the urine
- Strained family dynamics around the issue of bed-wetting
- Child's emotional response to the behavior
- Recent psychological trauma
TreatmentMost children will stop bed-wetting by the time they reach puberty. However, bed-wetting can remain a problem for up to 1% of adults. Most treatment aims to gradually reduce the number of bed-wettings until the child grows out of it. Treatment is rarely appropriate before age 6. If your child's bed-wetting is caused by an infection or physical abnormality, a treatment plan will be created for that issue. Since this is uncommon, most children may be treated with one or more of these ways:
Motivation and Family SupportBed-wetting is rarely an intentional act. Children are usually upset and ashamed when it happens. Do not punish the child. It is important that parents offer encouragement. The bed-wetting will stop with time. Do not let siblings tease the child who wets the bed.Keep careful records of the child's progress. Offer consistent support. A simple motivational method is the use of positive feedback, such as a star chart.Avoid giving the child anything to drink after 6:00-7:00 PM in the evening. Have your child urinate before going to bed. Sugar and caffeine should also be avoided after late afternoon.
Behavioral ConditioningA conditioning device may be recommended. One example is a pad with a buzzer that sounds when wet. The pad is worn in the child's underwear. The alarm will wake the child up to use the toilet. Parents may need to help the child get to the bathroom and reset the alarm.Dry bed training is another type of therapy. With this training, you follow a schedule where you wake your child up during the night to use the bathroom.
Bladder TrainingSome doctors suggest bladder-stretching exercises. While awake, the child gradually increases the amount of time between urinations. Do not try this method without talking to the doctor. Holding in urine can lead to daytime wetting and urinary tract infections.
MedicationMedication is rarely given. However, it may be used for short-term situations like a sleepover or vacation. Some medications include:
- A hormone that decreases the amount of urine that is made
- An antidepressant that lightens the level of sleep and may also decrease how often your child urinates
- A medication to reduce bladder overactivity and frequency of nighttime wetting
PreventionExcess intake of fluid is rarely the cause of bed-wetting. Restricting fluids prior to bed does not help all the time. Still, it is reasonable to have all children empty their bladders prior to bed. Some parents wake their children every few hours to urinate.
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
Alberta Health and Wellness
Enuresis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 21, 2014. Accessed September 3, 2014.
Facts for families: bed wetting. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website. Available at: http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts%5Ffor%5Ffamilies/bedwetting. Updated December 2011. Accessed September 3, 2014.
Lee T, Suh HJ, et al. Comparison of effects of treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis with oxybutynin plus desmopressin, desmopressin alone, or imipramine alone: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Urol. 2005;174:1084-1087.
Robson WL. Clinical practice. Evaluation and management of enuresis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 2;360(14):1429-1436.
Robson WL, Leung AK, et al. Primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis: similarities in presentation. Pediatrics. 2005 Apr;115(4):956-959.
Waking up dry: Helping your child overcome bedwetting. Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/genitourinary-tract/Pages/Waking-Up-Dry-Helping-Your-Child-Overcome-Bedwetting.aspx. Updated May 9, 2014. Accessed September 3, 2014.
12/13/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: 2007 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary Supplements: Desmopressin acetate (marketed as DDAVP Nasal Spray, DDAVP Rhinal Tube, DDAVP, DDVP, Minirin, and Stimate Nasal Spray). US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2007/safety07.htm#Desmopressin. 2007 Dec 4.
9/23/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Glazener C, Evans J, Peto RE. Complex behavioural and educational interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004(1). CD004668. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004668.
10/10/2013 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mellon M, Natchey B, Katusic S, et al. Incidence of enuresis and encopresis among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population-based cohort. Acad Pediatr. 2013 Jul-Aug;13(4):322-327.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/03/2014
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