(Hernia, Groin—Adult; Hernia, Inguinal—Adult; Inguinal Hernia—Adult)
DefinitionA groin hernia occurs when abdominal tissue or fat pokes out through the abdominal wall. It causes a bulge in the groin area. There are two main types:
- Inguinal hernia—occurs in the area where the abdomen meets the thigh on both sides. This is the most common type.
- Femoral hernia—located in the upper thigh.
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CausesThe abdominal wall wraps around your middle from the bottom of your ribs to your pelvis. It helps to contain and support your abdominal organs and tissue. When this area is weakened, these internal tissues can press through can create the hernia. The weakness may be caused by a problem with the abdominal wall development before birth, injuries, or wear and tear of the muscles.
Risk FactorsGroin hernias are more common in men and femoral hernias are more common in women.Abdominal wall weakness is more common in older adults. Factors that increase your chance of abdominal wall weakness include:
- Wear and tear on abdominal wall from frequent lifting of heavy objects, or prolonged coughing or straining
- Previous surgery in the abdominal area
- Family history of hernia
- Peritoneal dialysis
SymptomsMany times, there are no symptoms with groin hernia. In those who do have them, the symptoms may include:
- A bulge in the groin area when standing or straining
- Pain in the groin area when straining
- A bulge that may extend into the scrotum
- Pain and/or a heavy feeling or discomfort in the groin area
- Severe pain in the groin or abdomen
- Abdominal swelling
DiagnosisYou will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Imaging studies are only done if the diagnosis in not clear by physical exam.
TreatmentWatchful waiting is an option for those with no symptoms. This means you and your doctor will monitor your hernia for growth or the appearance of more serious symptoms. In people with symptoms, hernias are repaired with surgery. The abdominal tissue will be pushed back in and the opening will be closed. Sometimes, a mesh material will be placed to help support the area.
PreventionThe following strategies may help to prevent a groin hernia:
- If you are overweight, lose weight.
- Exercise regularly to keep abdominal muscles strong.
- Learn to lift properly . Ask for help with heavy weights.
- Stop smoking, especially if you have a chronic cough.
American College of Physicians
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Canadian Institute for Health Information
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Hawn MT, Itani KM, et al. Patient-reported outcomes after inguinal herniorrhaphy. Surgery. 2006;140:198-205.
Inguinal hernia. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/inguinalhernia/inguinalhernia.pdf. Updated May 2014. Accessed January 14, 2015.
Inguinal/femoral hernia. American College of Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.facs.org/public%5Finfo/operation/brochures/hernrep.pdf. Updated May 2013. Accessed January 14, 2015.
Laurence I, Ngan-Soo E, et al. The role of multi-detector computed tomography in imaging hernias. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2011;72(2):72-77.
- Reviewer: Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015
- Update Date: 05/01/2014