Tuberculosis

(TB)

Definition

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection. TB may be either active or latent. Latent forms can stay in your body and not make you sick. Latent TB may become active if you are ill, have a weakened immune system, or for no known reason.TB infection most is most common in the lungs, but it can occur in other places in the body.

Causes

TB is a highly contagious disease caused by a specific bacteria. It is transmitted by air from one person to another. This can happen during coughing, sneezing, or talking. Once airborne, the bacteria can be breathed in by other people causing exposure or active infection. You can only pass the infection to other people if you have active TB.
Pathway to the Lungs
Air pathway breathing
Bacteria is inhaled through the mouth and nose and travels down into the lungs causing TB.
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Risk Factors

Infants, young children, and older adults are more susceptible to TB.Factors that may increase your chance of TB exposure include:
  • Close contact with a person infected with active TB
  • Living in or traveling to an area where there are high rates of TB
  • Working in certain occupations, such as farming, funeral homes, and healthcare
  • Living or working in crowded, indoor conditions, such as prisons, hospitals, homeless shelters, or nursing homes
Factors that increase your chance of getting active TB after exposure:
  • Chronic diseases that weaken the immune system:
  • Certain medications that weaken or suppress the immune system, such as chemotherapy drugs that treat cancer

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