(Inflammation of Optic Nerve)
DefinitionThe optic nerve allows you to see by carrying images from your eye to your brain. Optic neuritis involves inflammation of the optic nerve. This may cause reduced vision or loss of vision. It is a serious condition that requires immediate care from your doctor.
|The Optic Nerve|
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CausesOptic neuritis has several causes. These include:
- Multiple sclerosis (MS)—most common cause
- Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic’s disease)
- Autoimmune disorders, such as Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- Exposure to toxic substances—this may be associated with optic neuropathy (injury to the optic nerve)
- Some medications
Risk FactorsFactors that may increase your chance of optic neuritis include:
- Personal or family history of multiple sclerosis or other autoimmune disorders
- Previous history of optic neuritis
- Previous history of transverse myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord)
SymptomsIn some people, optic neuritis may not cause any visual problems. In those that have them, optic neuritis may cause:
- Relatively sudden decrease in vision, such as blurring, darkening, or dimming of vision
- Loss of vision in the center of, part of, or all of the visual field
- Abnormal color vision, such as dull and faded colors
- Pain in or around the eye, which is often made worse with eye movement
DiagnosisOptic neuritis may be difficult to diagnose. Your eye may look perfectly normal. Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. It will include a neurologic examination. You may be referred to an ophthalmologist (eye specialist) or neurologist (nervous system specialist).Your doctor may need to test your eye function. This can be done with:
- Tests of color vision, side vision, visual acuity, and the reaction of the pupil to light
- Dilated eye examination
- Visual evoked potential test (VEP)
- Blood tests
- Lumbar puncture to check the cerebrospinal fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord
TreatmentTalk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
- Steroid medication to reduce swelling of the optic nerve
- Medication to treat the cause of optic neuritis
PreventionThere are no current guidelines to prevent optic neuritis.
Eye Smart—American Academy of Opthalmology
North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Canadian Association of Optometrists
Canadian Ophthalmological Society
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Optic neuritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 24, 2013. Accessed August 21, 2014.
Romero RS, Gutierrez Y, et al. Homonymous hemimacular thinning: a unique presentation of optic tract thinning in neuromyelitis optica. J Neuroophthalmal. 2012;32(2):150-153.
Volpe NJ. The optic neuritis treatment trial: a definitive answer and profound impact with unexpected results. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(7):996-999.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/30/2013