Eustachian Tube Dysfunction
(ETD; Barotitis Media; Barotrauma; Ear Popping; Pressure-related Ear Pain)
DefinitionThe eustachian tube is a small canal that connects the middle ear to the back of the nose and upper throat. Its purpose is to equalize the air pressure in the middle ear with the pressure outside it.Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) occurs when the tube fails to open during swallowing or yawning. This results in a difference between the air pressure inside and outside the middle ear.
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CausesETD is caused by poor function or blockage of the eustachian tube, including:
- Inability of the tiny hairs inside the ear to remove fluid and infection
- Poor squeezing function within the eustachian tube
- Narrow eustachian tube—in infants
- Adenoid tissue blocking eustachian tube—in children
- Swollen nasal secretions that cause a blockage
- Tumors—in adults
Risk FactorsThis condition is more common in children. Factors that may increase your chance of getting ETD include:
- Nasal congestion from an allergy
- Cold or other upper respiratory infection
- Ear or sinus infections
- Environmental allergies
- Children with large adenoids
- Activities with large, rapid altitude changes, such as flying in an airplane or scuba diving
- Presence of obstructing tumors in the nasopharynx
SymptomsSymptoms can include:
- Feeling of fullness or clogging in the ear
- Discomfort or pain in the ear
- Hearing loss
- Ringing in the ear
- A sensation of spinning known as vertigo
- Symptoms that cannot be relieved by swallowing, yawning, or chewing
- Pain if the blockage results in an infection
DiagnosisYou will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your ears will be examined. If your case is severe, you may need to see an otolaryngologist, a doctor who specializes in ear disorders.You may have tests done on your ears. This may include:
TreatmentTo deal with ear clogging, discomfort, or pain, you can try:
- Swallowing, yawning, or chewing gum to relieve the pressure
- Clearing your ears by breathing in and then gently breathing out while holding your nostrils and mouth closed
- Nasal or oral decongestants
- Oral antihistamines
- Nasal steroids to relieve nasal congestion and enable the eustachian tube to open
- Pain medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen
PreventionTo help reduce your chances of getting ETD, take the following steps:
- Treat allergies as advised by your doctor.
- Avoid flying in an airplane or going scuba diving if you have allergies or a cold.
- When flying:
- Use decongestants or antihistamines if you have an allergy or a cold.
- Yawn or chew gum. Encourage swallowing by sucking on hard candy or drinking water.
- When taking off and landing, clear your ears by breathing in and then gently breathing out while holding your nostrils and mouth closed.
- Try special earplugs that slowly equalize the pressure in your ear. These earplugs can be found at drugstores and airports.
American Hearing Research Foundation
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Canadian Academy of Audiology
The Canadian Hearing Society
Barotrauma. American Hearing Research Foundation website. Available at: http://american-hearing.org/disorders/barotrauma. Updated October 2012. Accessed September 24, 2014.
Eustachian tube dysfunction. McKinley Health Center, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign website. Available at: http://www.mckinley.uiuc.edu/handouts/eustachian%5Ftube%5Fdysfunction/eustachian%5Ftube%5Fdysfunction.html. Updated March 24, 2007. Accessed September 24, 2014.
Eustachian tube dysfunction. Patient UK website. Available at: http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Eustachian-Tube-Dysfunction.htm. Updated March 15, 2012. Accessed September 24, 2014.
General information about nasopharyngeal cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/nasopharyngeal/Patient. Updated December 20, 2013. Accessed September 24, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/24/2014
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