Accustomed to keeping a low profile, Christians in Israel and the West Bank
are being careful to avoid giving the impression that Pope John Paul II, who
is due to arrive in the Holy Land in late March, is making the visit on their
behalf. Quietly, however, they are hoping that the arrival of His Holiness
will help to ease what many feel is an increasingly difficult situation
for members of the Christian faith.
The recent rise of Islamic fundamentalism among Palestinians and Israeli
Arabs has been a source of deep concern to the small Christian population
here. Off the record, many Christians living in the West Bank complain
that they are being persecuted by Yasser Arafat's Palestinian Authority, which
has sought, through pro-Muslim policies, to appease fundamentalist
opposition to the PA's attempts to reach a peace agreement with Israel.
Things are not necessarily any easier in Israel. When a group of militant
Muslims occupied the square fronting Nazareth's Basilica of the
Annunciation and demanded that mosque be established on the site, the
Christian community was forced to look on, almost helplessly as the
squatters proceeded to get their wish.
But with the Pope's visit around the corner, the Palestinian Christians are hopeful that
their fortunes may take turn for the better. And these hopes do not rest
solely on the soothing effects of John Paul's message of universal peace,
tolerance and brotherhood. Like almost everything in the Middle East, the
expected benefits the Pontiff will bring are political in origin.
To Palestinian leaders locked into a fierce diplomatic struggle with their
Israeli counterparts, the Vatican, which has expressed sympathy in the
past to Palestinian demands for statehood, is seen as a potentially important
ally. Although the Pope will spend most of his time in the region in
Israel, touring Jerusalem and the Galilee, Palestinians see his one-day
visit to Palestinian controlled Bethlehem as the key moment of his visit.
Thanks, in part, to an agreement signed last month between the Vatican and
the PLO, the pope can be confident that he will receive a hero's welcome
in Bethlehem, unlike Prime Minister Lionel Jospin of France whose motorcade
was pelted with stones during a recent visit to the West Bank town of Bir Zeit.
"The agreement constitutes a historic turning point in the benefit of
peace ... and as a guarantor of Palestinian national rights,'' Arafat said in a
statement released following the agreement. "(It) rejects all Israeli
attempts to annex and Judaize Jerusalem,''
Strongly criticized by Israel, the pact addresses the status of churches
and the freedom of worship in the Palestinian territories. The preamble
declared that an ``equitable solution'' for Jerusalem, based on
international resolutions, was ``fundamental for a just and lasting
It also called for international safeguards of freedom of religion.
Wadi Abu Nassar, an assistant to the Latin Patriarch in Jerusalem, Michel
Sabbah, says that the agreement has "institutionalized the relationship
between the Catholic church and the PLO." He adds that the Catholic Church
does not recognize the sovereignty of Israel over East Jerusalem. "Now
there is an official channel between the PLO and the Catholic Church," he
As a further expression of the pope's solidarity with the Palestinian
people, his visit to Bethlehem is expected to include a tour of the nearby
Dhaisheh refugee camp, home to some 20,000 Palestinians living in squalid
conditions. The Palestinians hope that this visit will bring worldwide
attention to the plight of the refugees, whose future is one of the issues
yet to be resolved by Palestinian and Israeli negotiators.
Like many Christians, Emil Jarjoui, a member of the Palestinian
Legislative Council, is careful to portray the Pope's visit as a boon to all
Palestinians, and not just to Christians. "It will provide a sort of
backing to our presence as Palestinians, to all the Palestinians of the
world, that they have now a country and that they can come back to it," he
To ensure the Vatican's continued sympathies, Chairman Arafat knows that
he must work to address the concerns of the Christians under his rule.
Arafat, whose wife Suha is Christian, meets regularly with church leaders
from the West Bank and East Jerusalem. And he is the principle guest of honor at midnight mass in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem each Christmas.
But the chairman of the Palestinian Authority must be careful not to be
seen to alienate the Muslim religious leaders such Sheikh Mohhamed Jamal,
the hardline deputy mufti of Jerusalem. Jamal broke ranks with the
Palestinian Authority's official line by launching a scathing attack on
the pope: "What message does this pope carry? None. Where was he when the
children of Iraq were dying because of the embargo? Why didn't we hear his
voice when Israel killed and imprisoned thousands of Palestinians?"
Despite the interest of the Vatican and the predominantly Christian countries of the Western world in the peace process and developments in the Holy Land, the local community is politically very weak. Cities such as Nazareth and Bethlehem, that were once overwhelmingly Christian, now boast Muslim majorities. In Jerusalem, the Christian population numbers around seven thousand, down from 28,000 in
1967 and 45,000 in 1947. The number of Christians of all denominations
living today in Israel (including East Jerusalem), the West Bank, and the
Gaza Strip is in the neighborhood of 150,000.
The Christian population of the Holy Land has fallen rapidly as a result of the emigration of the younger generation who feel persecuted by both Jews and Muslims. In the Bethlehem region the Christian population has fallen from an estimated 120,000 in 1967 to 50,000 today. "In a few years' time, Christian pilgrims coming to the Holy land will have to bring their own priest because there won't be any left," says Dr Samir Qumsiyeh, a physician from Bethlehem.
In the eyes of many Palestinians, the pressures that drove so many
Christians abroad can be directly traced to the Israeli-Arab
conflict. The Anglican Bishop of the Diocese of Jerusalem, Riyah
Abu Assal, states emphatically that prior to the establishment of the
State of Israel, "The entire history of Palestine never witnessed any
religious conflict between Christians and Muslims." In her book, This Side
of Peace, former Palestinian chief-negotiator Hanan Ashrawi asserts that
while growing up she felt no difference between Palestinian Christians and
Muslims: "We did not know who was what, and it was not an issue."
"Our problem is that we feel that we are caught between Jews and Muslims,
explains Nasser Odeh, a 64 - year -old Christian living in Jerusalem's
Christian Quarter in the Old City. "We feel that we don't enjoy all our
rights here in Jerusalem as Christian Arabs. This is the way it goes when
you are a minority."
It remains to be seen whether or not the Pope's visit, or even the
resolution of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict will revive the spirit of
tolerance that Palestinians insist once existed between the region's
Christian and Muslim neighbors. For the time being, however, Christians in
the Holy Land must do their best to come to terms with the fact that they
are not in charge.
Farid Zuabi, a member of the Muslim Trust in Nazareth, summed up the
situation, as he defended the controversial campaign to build a mosque
directly in front of the Basilica of the Annunciation, the traditional
site where Mary received word that she bore the Christ child in her womb. "I
see no reason why the Muslims, who make up a majority in Nazareth, should not
be allowed to build their own mosque on this land, he said. And then he
added, in the spirit of consolation, "We want to invite the Holy Pope to
lay the cornerstone for the new mosque.
Khaled Abu Toameh
Six Day St 36
Tel: 02 5815508
Mobile: 050 331600