[For Paul,] there are no other gods, but there are demons. The `so-called gods and lords' of 1 Corinthians 8:4-6 are not really Gods and Lords, but they are something. Paul speaks of them in other ways: `beings that by nature are no gods' (Gal. 4:8); Satan, who disguises himself as the 'angel of light' (2 Cor. 11:14); 'another god', who governs `this age' (2 Cor. 4:4); `rulers of this age' (1 Cor. 2:6); `principalities' and `powers' (Rom. 8:38), or 'principalities, authorities and powers' (1 Cor. 15:24). There were knees to be bent not only on the earth, but also above and below it (Phil. 2:10). In the end, Christ will triumph (Rom. 8:38f.; 1 Cor. 15:24-6; Phil. 2:9-11), but meanwhile these beings can create a good deal of trouble. We should pay special attention to the degree to which Sin is treated by Paul as an enemy power. This is most clearly the case when the noun hamartio, sin, is the subject of a verb other than `to be', as it is in Romans 5-7. According to Romans 5:12, Sin `entered the world'; thereafter one reads that 'Sin reigned in death' (5:21); that Sin may `reign' in one's body (6:12) or `have dominion' over one (6:14); that Sin ,; found opportunity in the commandment and `wrought in me all kinds ; of covetousness' (7:8); that it `revived' (7:9); that it found `opportunity, in the commandment, deceived me and by it killed me' (7:11); and that,: it `worked death in me through what is good' (7:13). Sin as power may be served (6:16-18), and thus it enslaves (6:20). Put another way, Sin is a 'law' which lurks in one's members and prevents the fulfilling of the law of God (7:17-23). The only escape is to leave `the Flesh' (8:8), the domain of Sin, by sharing Christ's death. Christians have died with Christ and thus to Sin (6:2-11), and they have thereby escaped not only Sin but also the law (which condemns) and the 'Flesh', the state of enmity towards God (7:4-6). Here a few words are required in explanation of the term `the Flesh'. Paul sometimes uses it to mean 'the physical body', but in this section of Romans it often refers to the state of humanity when it opposes God. Thus, strikingly, Romans 7:5f.: `while we were living in the Flesh . . . But now we are discharged from the law . . . so that we serve not under the old written code but in the new life of the Spirit.' The `we' refers to Paul and other Christians. They are no longer `in the Flesh', though they are still in their skins with their body tissue intact. As Paul puts it in Romans 8:9, 'You are not in the Flesh, you are in the Spirit', and the contrast of Flesh and Spirit continues (8:9-13). My guess is that we see here the explanation of why Paul uses 'Flesh' to mean `humanity in the state of opposition to God': it is simply the word which is opposite `Spirit', which in turn denotes the divine power. This is, at any rate, the best way to decide when to capitalize Flesh, so that it points not to humanity as physical, but to humanity under an enemy power. It is the latter when there is a clear contrast between it and the Spirit of God. Then flesh becomes Flesh.
The same is true of Romans 5, where Paul also argues for the universality of sin. Adam, he states, sinned, and this introduced sin and its consequence, death, into the world; `and so death spread to all people because all sinned' (Rom. 5:12). This is followed by the statements that `sin is not counted where there is no law' and that 'death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sins were not like the transgression of Adam' (5:13-14). In order to make the grip of sin universal, Paul wished to make Adam instrumental. Yet he had two problems: transgressions of the law which preceded the giving of it ':should not count; not everyone sinned, as did Adam, by rebelling against God's commandment. Despite these problems he asserted the consequence: `by one man's disobedience many were made sinners' (5:19). His anthropology (unlike Augustine's) did not include the conception of inherited sin, and thus he had no logical way of `proving' universal condemnation by appeal to Adam. He simply asserted it while himself citing points which count against it. What we see in both cases is a conclusion that is independent of the arguments which precede it. Adam's sin does not, in Paul's own statement of it, prove that all humanity is sinful and stands condemned. The heinous sins of some Greeks and Jews do not, even in Paul's own presentation of them, lead to the view that all humans are enslaved by Sin. This means that he held the conclusion as a fixed view and tried to bring forward arguments in favour of it, though without logical success. The conclusion, in other words, is not only independent of but is also more important than the arguments.
It is probable that Paul had been influenced by dualism, especially since
he considered the entire created order to be in need of redemption
(Rom. 8:19-23), though it could not have been guilty of transgression.'
But here we see that despite some influence of dualism, Paul was not a
dualist. He proposed that it was God himself who had subjected the
creation to `futility', and that he had done so 'in hope', planning its
redemption. Formally, there is no admission in Romans 8 of a second
power, much less a second god. Yet Paul did believe in evil spiritual forces which he called by various names, as we noted above. These non-gods could blind (2 Cor. 4:4) and enslave (Gal. 4:8), as could Sin (Rom. 6:6)
If there is some truth in the suggestion that Paul was influenced by dualistic thought, there is more in the view that his discussions of sin are the reflex of his soteriology. We see the force of the latter most fully when we consider his view of God's work in history, which we may call `providence', and then ask about the relationship between providence and sin.