And the third [route to happiness] is the meaningful life: that's knowing your signature strengths, and using them in the service of something much larger than you are. There are no shortcuts.
Can you give me an example of using your signature strengths to achieve the good life, and then to achieve the meaningful life?
Sure. When I teach positive psychology-and it's the most joyous teaching I've ever done, it beats abnormal psychology by a mile-we do exercises each week which are meaningful for the students. I'll give you two examples. One of the assignments is to identify something they do at work which is tedious and to find some way to find some way of recrafting that part of their work to deploy their highest strengths. They've all taken the signature strengths inventory from the book, so they know what their strengths are.
One of my students is a waitress and she really hated being patronized by customers, plus it was physically tedious work. Her highest strength is social intelligence. She decided she would recraft her work to make her customers' encounter with her the social highlight of their evening. She transformed something that was both tedious and negative into something that had "flow." That's a "good life" example.
A "meaningful life" example is deploying your best strengths in the service of something larger. We do an exercise called "philanthropy vs. fun." The assignment is to do something fun and write it up, and do something altruistic and write it up. Here's a typical report: When people do something fun, when it's over, it's over-for example, hanging out with their friends, watching television, listening to music. When they're done, they're done. But in the philanthropic activities, the effects are longer lasting. One of the women spent two hours on the phone tutoring her nephew in third-grade arithmetic. She said that the whole day went better for her. She could listen to people better, she was mellower, people liked her more. And one of the Wharton [School of Business] students said, "I went to Wharton to make a lot of money, because I thought it would bring more freedom and more happiness. But I found I could be happier helping other people than I could be buying things."
So money really doesn't buy happiness. In your book, you mention that even winning the lottery doesn't make people permanently happy. Why is that?
It turns out that each of us has our own set range for happiness, which is largely inherited-and there's a study of lottery winners showing that after the initial elation of winning, they eventually revert back to their baseline happiness level. In fact, good fortune is no guarantee of happiness. You get used to your level of wealth and health, and even major events-like being fired or promoted-lose their impact on happiness in a matter of months.
In contrast, when you identify your highest strengths and virtues, the things you're best at-and then you do the tricks of recrafting love and work and parenting and play to use them more-you create lasting happiness. So the whole point of positive psychology interventions that they are not only self-maintaining, but they snowball in a positive direction. That's because you really have to do it yourself, it's a discovery within you. It's not doing something external. It's finding what you're really best at and doing it more.
Many people want to change their job or their life. They feel stuck, and they don't know how to do that. You're saying you don't need to necessarily find another job but .
Recraft what you're doing in line with your signature strengths. There are both exercises and self-assessment devices on our website - so it's good link.
You speak in your book about faith and spirituality. What role do they play in happiness?
Quite a number of roles. First, there's been evidence for a long time that people who are seriously religious are less depressed and happier and more optimistic. Secondly, people who are seriously religious are at a tremendous advantage with the third kind of happy life, the meaningful life. They use their signature strengths in the service of something much larger than they are, and that is a tried-and-true route to life satisfaction. But part of my concern is the enormous number of people who, like myself, have no religious beliefs, and yet want to lead a meaningful life. That's what the last chapter in the book's about.