Professional boxer, philanthropist and social activist Cassius Clay is known to the world as Muhammad Ali. Ali won a gold medal in the 1960 Olympics. He is the only boxer to win the lineal World Heavyweight Champion three times. Ali is known for his controversial boxing career; however, after his retirement in 1984, he was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. In 1996 he carried the flame for the Olympics, and in 1991 he traveled to Iraq during the Gulf War to negotiate the release of American hostages. Despite his ongoing struggles he became a philanthropist and was awarded the presidential citizens medal in 2005, which is the second highest civilian award in the United States.