Fa'iq Da'ud was expecting trouble at Jerusalem's Temple Mount in 2000--or as he'd say, at al-Haram al-Sharif.
In fact, the violence that exploded at the world's most contested holy site this fall, and which ignited ongoing battles between Israelis and Palestinians, is only a pale glimmer next to Da'ud's apocalyptic visions--visions that shed light on a dangerous, often-ignored side of the Mount's place in the religious imagination of three faiths.
For Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, the 36-acre hilltop plaza is not only at the center of Israeli-Palestinian peace talks, it is also center stage for the Last Days.
Da'ud's book, "The Great Events Preceding the Appearance of the Mahdi," was on sale at Islamic bookstores around the West Bank last year. The cover of the Arabic tract shows an aerial photo of the Haram--Dome of the Rock mosque at the center, Al-Aqsa mosque to one side.
Next to it is a picture of a model of the Jewish Temple, superimposed on thesame site, replacing both mosques. Inside, Da'ud portrays a vastconspiracy of Jews and Christians that, he says, intends to build the ThirdTemple to prepare the way for the arrival of their sharedmessiah, who he says is the Antichrist. Yet he finds hope in the threat to Islam's shrines: It heralds history's final battles and the coming of the Mahdi, the true redeemer.
It's a dark fantasy but hardly unique. Moreover, Da'ud is just one of the writers who, in recent years, have produced a new, popular genre of Islamic works on impending apocalypse.
The books look forward to Islam's victory over the West. Ironically, though, they draw directly on the end-times literature of conservative Christians--including dispensationalists' expectation that the Third Temple will soon be built on its ancient site, ushering in the Last Days and Jesus' return to earth.
Underlying this strange symbiosis is a shared view of history: As a grand drama, scripted in advance by the Divine Playwright, and due to reach its denouement any day--in beleaguered Jerusalem.
Meanwhile, Christianity wove its vision of the end out of Jewish materials and the New Testament's promise that Jesus would return to the city of his crucifixion.
Most strikingly, Islam reworked the traditions of its older sisters to alsopromise that Jerusalem would be the capital of the messianic age.
The idea of the End need not--and, I'd argue, should not--be read with blind literalism. It is better seen as providing an image of the perfected world to which we must aspire without expecting to get there. But the temptation to treat end-time prophecies literally is particularly seductive when a great drama is played out on the stage of the Holy Land.
For a century, the return of Jews to their homeland and the Arab-Israeli conflict has presented just such a drama. And so, one segment of Orthodox Jewryregards the Jewish state as the "first flowering" of redemption. For thoseJews, Israel's stunning victory in the 1967 Six-Day War--symbolized by acolonel's battlefield announcement that "the Temple Mount is in our hands"--turned expectations into ecstasy. At the extreme edge of this camp are theimpatient activists who want to build the Temple.
Christians of the dispensationalist school have likewise seen Israel's establishment and the 1967 victory as fulfilling biblical promises--but look forward to a very different denouement:
The Antichrist helps the Jews build the Temple, then desecrates it. Catastrophesshake the world; Jews either accept Christianity or die; Jesus returns. Inbooks, videos, and internet pages, dispensationalists often magnify theimportance of Jewish Temple activists a thousandfold--as "proof" that thenext act of the prophetic pageant is about to begin.
Out of fear rather than hope, Muslims have also overestimated Jewish interest in the Temple. Israel's conquest of Jerusalem's Old City (where the Mount is located) turned up the anxiety--even though the Jewish state left the Islamic shrines untouched and under Muslim administration. Events such as the 1984 arrest of a Jewish underground that had plotted to blow up the Dome of the Rock fueled the fears.
Thus, the Haram has become an icon of Palestinian nationalism, and the trauma of the conflict with Israel has helped produce a new Islamic apocalyptic vision, first portrayed in Egyptian writer Sa'id Ayyub's 1987 book, "Al-Masih Al-Dajjal--The Antichrist."