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Responding to Hitchens on Chanukah

posted by Michael Lerner

In the typical fashion that have made Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins into heroes among those who hate (sometimes for good reasons, sometimes not) the religions of the world, we get below Hitchens’ distortions endorsed by Dawkins. The approach is typical: a religious view is mis-described and distorted, then ridiculed–all made possible by quoting out of context and taking the least sophisticated possible interpretations of the tradition. Unlike Hitchens and fellow traveler Dawkins, I believe in intellectual honesty, and hence am first presenting a link to the entirety of Hitchens attack, so you can read it in context, then what I wrote that his misrepresents, then my comments. Then try to figure out why anyone with a serious intellectual curiosity would give a moment’s attention to this clown.  Both Hitchens and Dawkins take the most primitive versions of religion, seemingly unaware of the variants of religion that have evolved through the ages. It’s kind of like denouncing “democracy” and using as  proof texts the presidency of George W. Bush. Sure, it’s real and was produced by a democratic system (well, not fully democratic), but showing its barbarity does not lead anyone with sophistication to reason in the Hitchens/Dawkins style: “this destructive behavior emerged in a democratic system, therefore democracy is worthless.” Yes that is precisely the form of argument underlying most of Hitchens/Dawkins. But look at how they’d howl if we used the same form of argument against atheism and said: “Hitler and Stalin were atheists, they established political systems that persecuted the established religions of their societies, and those societies then killed tens of millions of innocents, therefore atheism produces genocide.” The argument is ridiculous for the same reason that Hitchens/Dawkins are ridiculous. But being ridiculous is only the beginning. Look to see how dishonest or at least intellectually sloppy Hitchens becomes in an article that Dawkins then publishes on his website with praise. Please see the entire article, Bah, Hanukkah, here: http://www.slate.com/id/2179045/

Now, lets look at what Rabbi Lerner actually said about Chanukah and the rise of Greek forms of rationality and culture:

Though the holiday celebrated by lighting candles for 8 nights recalls the victory of the guerrilla struggle led by the Maccabees against the Syrian branch of the Greek empire, and the subsequent re-dedication (Chaunkah in Hebrew) of the Temple in Jerusalem in 165 B.C.E., there was a more difficult struggle which took place (and in some dimensions still rages) within the Jewish people between those who hoped for a triumph of a spiritual vision of the world embedded (as it turned out, quite imperfectly) in the Maccabbees and a cynical realism that had become the common sense of the merchants and priests who dominated the more cosmopolitan arena of Jerusalem.

The cynical realists in Judea, among them many of the priests charged with preserving the Temple, argued that Greek power was overwhelming and that it made far greater sense to accommodate to it than to resist. The Greek globalizers promised advances in science and technology that could benefit international trade and enrich the local merchants who sided with them, even though the taxes that accompanied their rule impoverished the Jewish peasants who worked the land and eked out a subsistence living. Along with Greek science and military prowess came a whole culture that celebrated beauty both in art and in the human body, presented the world with the triumph of rational thought in the works of Plato and Aristotle, and rejoiced in the complexities of life presented in the theatre of Aeschylus, Euripides, and Aristophanes.

To the Maccabbees, the guerrilla band that they assembled to fight the Greek Empire and its Seleucid dynasty in Syria, and to many of the Jewish supporters of that struggle, the issue of Greek militarism, social injustice and oppression were far more salient than the accomplishments of Greek high culture. Whatever might be the value of Athenian democracy, the reality that it exported to the world through Alexander and his successors was oppressive and exploitative.

The “oldtime religion” that the Maccabbees fought to preserve had revolutionary elements in it that went far beyond the Greeks in articulating a liberatory vision: not only in the somewhat abstract demand to “love  your neighbor as yourself,” “love the stranger,” and pursue justice and peace, but also concretely in Torah prescriptions to abolish all debts every seven years, allow the land to lie fallow every seven years, refrain from all work and activities connected to control over the earth once a week on Sabbath, redistribute the land every fifty years (the Jubilee)  back to its original equal distribution.

The identification with the oppressed, enshrined in Judaism in its insistence that Jews were derived from slaves who had been liberated, and in its focus on retelling the story of being oppressed that was central to the Torah, seemed atavistic and naive to the more educated and enlightened Jewish urban dwellers, who pointed to the reactionary tribalistic elements of Torah and sided with the Greeks when they declared circumcision and study of Torah illegal and banned the observance of the Sabbath.

The miracle of Chanukah is that so many people were able to resist the overwhelming “reality” imposed by the imperialists and to stay loyal to a vision of a world based on generosity, love of stranger, and loyalty to an invisible God who promised that life could be based on justice and peace. It was these “little guys,” the powerless, who managed  to sustain a vision of hope that inspired them to fight against overwhelming odds, against the power of technology and science organized in the service of domination, and despite the fact that they were dismissed as terrorists and fundamentalist crazies. When this kind of energy, what religious people call “the Spirit of God,” becomes ingredient in the consciousness of ordinary people, miracles ensue.

    It is this same radical hope, whether rooted in religion or secularist belief systems, that remains the foundation for all who continue to struggle for a world of peace and social justice at a time when the champions of war and injustice dominate the political and economic institutions of our own society, often with the assistance of their contemporary cheerleading religious leaders. It is that radical hope that is celebrated this Chanukah by those Jews who have not yet joined the contemporary Hellenists.

Rabbi Lerner’s commentary:

1.  If you read the original article, you will see that I do not say anything that could justify Hitchens claim that I said “away with all that” referring to rational thinking or Greek culture. What I did say was that the Maccabbees perceived that culture as part of the overall enterprise of Greek imperialism. “To the Maccabees, the issue of Greek militarism, social injustice and oppression were far more salient than the accomplishments of Greek high culture. Whatever might be the value of Athenian democracy, the reality that it exported to the world through Alexander and his successors was oppressive and exploitative.” The same may help us understand (not agree with) the rejection of Western culture by some fundamentalist groups today, seeing that culture as fundamentally linked to Western imperialism.  Understanding that gives us a better way not to apologize for fundamentalism but to challenge it effectively.

Let me explain. The imperialists set a choice for peoples that they conquer: If you want our science, literature, and culture (all things that I value, and many others should too), then you must embrace our political, economic and cultural domination over you. The fundamentalists respond by saying: no, I don’t want your economic, political or cultural domination, and anyone who wants true freedom and an opportunity to hold on to what is good in th
e religious traditions that we’ve developed must reject anything that smacks of Western versions of rationality, science, literature and culture.

But to those of us who are spiritual progressives, this choice is a false one imposed by two contending sides each of which has something to offer and each of which has much that is distorted.

As I describe in my books The Politics of Meaning (1996), Spirit Matters (2000) and The Left Hand of God: Taking Back our Country From the Religious Right (2006), a spiritual progressive embraces science and rationality, though it also embraces forms of rationality that have been developed by women and that integrate aspects of emotional, spiritual,  and ecological literacy into our conceptions of rationality (all of which are increasingly now being explored by social science and psychology).  But a spiritual progressive also embraces “A new bottom line” in which institutions, social practices, corporations, government policies and even our own behavior are judged “efficient, rational or productive” not only to the extent that they maximize money or power (the Old Bottom Line), but also to the extent that they maximize love and caring, kindness and generosity, ethical and ecological sensitivity, enhance our capacities to experience others as embodiments of the sacred and enhance our capacities to respond to the universe with awe, wonder and radical amazement at the grandeur of  all being.  This is a conception of rationality and productivity and efficiency that does not derive from the wisdom of Athens or Rome and their powerful armies, but from Jerusalem (though it is shared by many of the other wisdom traditions of the world).

So trying to suggest that in embracing some aspects of what the Macabees were trying to accomplish one must thereby be committed to rejecting all that is good in the West is an outright distortion, and reflects either intellectual sloppiness or a willful desire to distort.  It is this same approach that appears over and over again in the tirades of Hitchens and, to a lesser but nevertheless significant extent, in the writings on God of Dawkins.

[By the way, you might also want to read an updated version of my analysis of the meaning of Chanukah in the current issue of Tikkun magazine, part of which you can find at www.tikkun.org]

2.  Hitchens is joined by David Brooks in the N.Y. Times on Thursday, Dec. 17 where Brooks talks about the resistance to Syrian Hellenistic rule as a resistance to Western culture.  As I’ve argued above, Hellenistic culture was part of the imperialist package, and that was part of what the Maccabees struggled against. But the struggles between Syria and Egypt to dominate Judea which went on from the death of Alexander in 325 BCE till the actual rebellion against Syria by Jews in 165 BCE was not a struggle about whether Syria or Egypt would have the primary honor of extending Greek culture to the Jewish peasantry. They were not fighting about who could present the Greek plays or philosophy or science or be the most effective in teaching the masses how to reason according to the Greek’s system of logic. Rather, the struggle was about who would have the right to exploit the Jewish (and other) peasantry, take away the agricultural surplus (and some of the basic necessities) so as to enrich their own Syrian or Egyptian society. The Maccabees were set into motion when the Syrians started punishing by death those who practiced Judaism, but the underlying grievances had much to do with the economic imperialism that motivated the Hellenistic powers.

3.    It is true that the revolt we celebrate at Chanukah did not produce an ideal society. The grandchildren of the Maccabees created a corrupt theocracy that I would not have wanted to live in. And some fundamentalist expansionists in Israel today rely on the Chanukah story as part of the cultural foundation for their oppressive rule over Palestinians. But that does not invalidate the celebration of Chanukah as we in the spiritual progressive world interpret it.

Here we have to understand the value of partial victories in the struggle for human liberation. I celebrate the American Revolution on July 4, even though what followed from it was a society in which slavery grew and prospered. I celebrate the parts of that revolution that opened up a process that could eventually lead to an expansion of democratic rights, even though at first the democracy it achieved was really restricted to the well-to-do men of the colonies.  Similarly, I celebrate the fall of the Berlin Wall and of Soviet-style communism even though the societies that emerged in Eastern Europe reestablished forms of capitalism that have so far denied to many the fundamental human rights of education, employment and health care that were more widely available before 1989.

My point is that we have to recognize how to celebrate partial victories that can (but won’t necessarily) be built upon in the future, because that’s all we are likely to get in any given lifetime–partial and somewhat flawed victories. If all we can focus on is “what has not yet been accomplished,” we create a psychological dynamic that leads to depression, passivity and what I call in a 1990 book Surplus Powerlessness.  So, yes we can celebrate partial victories, and build upon them, and while we might give lots of focus all year long to the limitations of those victories, it is not a bad idea to have a few days dedicated to celebrating what was accomplished, however lacking.

What’s really at stake in all this is the ability to think about religion in a more nuanced way. I think I understand why David Brooks and Christopher Hitchens seem to identify with the Hellenists–they never met an imperialist they didn’t embrace. They have been among the more enthusiastic supporters of U.S. imperialism in the last decade, so naturally they’d find more in common with the imperialists of the past. But that doesn’t mean that I or spiritual progressives find more in common with the fundamentalists of the past. On the contrary, we reject both alternatives and embrace instead a path that is both pro-science and rationality as well as  pro-spiritual consciousness, God, and progressive forms (but not reactionary versions of) religion. In fact, that is what Tikkun magazine (subscribe at www.tikkun.org) and the Network of Spiritual Progressives (join at www.spiritualprogressives.org) are all about, and that is why we find ourselves in the forefront of the struggle against Israeli occupation of Palestinians, the U.S. role in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Russian role in Chechnya, the Chinese role in Tibet, and the human rights violating societies of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, and countless others.  In fact, you don’t have to be a religious person or believe in God to be a spiritual progressive–you only have to support the New Bottom Line described above. And with that understanding, you can see why we support both Chanukah and Christmas and many other religions’ celebrations, at least the versions of them that are being developed by spiritual progressives, while rejecting the ethos of materialism, selfishness and me-firstism (and chauvinism of every kind including that embodied in some interpretations of “Jews as the chosen people”) that have been fostered in the contemporary world by the logic of capitalism.   



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Justin

posted December 14, 2009 at 10:37 pm


But what about the reformist, liberal Jews who wanted a more modern, cosmopolitian version of their religion? Shouldn’t we take a moment a think about them when celebrating Chanukah. Surely they suffered when the Maccabees took power.



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Rabbi Howard A. Berman

posted December 15, 2009 at 3:47 am


David Brooks’ New York Times Op-Ed, “The Hanukkah Story,” published insensitively on the First Night of the Festival on December 11, is disturbing and offensive on many levels- beyond the scrooge-like pall it seems determined to cast on the celebration of a beloved holiday. Rabbi Lerner offers a number of critical insights I would like to echo. One would hope that Mr. Brook’s academic and journalistic credentials would encompass an understanding of the complexities and nuance of history – which is never the literal, objective, factual account of actual events, but rather the way human experience has been interpreted – reflecting the political or philosophical agenda of both the original chronicle and the evolving national, cultural or religious traditions that emerge from those transforming developments. The Maccabean revolt of 165 BCE reflected the debates and passions of every revolution – the tensions between noble ideals and pragmatic action, as well as the timeless conflict of “traditionalists” and “reformers.” These dynamics have been at work in the history of Christianity ( especially at the time of the split between Rome and Eastern Orthodoxy in the 10th century and later, in the violent Protestant-Catholic conflicts of the Reformation); certainly in Islam ( the endless Sunni-Shiite battles); and in the history of America ( especially in the passionate partisan controversies among the Founding Fathers and later, in the Civil War)… no less than they were in Hanukkah’s story of an oppressed people’s revolt against tyranny. One might ask whether Mr. Brookes would have written such an attack on our Nation’s founders for publication on July 4, charging that Independence Day’s meaning is diminished because patriots tarred, feathered and hanged Tories who did not share their Revolutionary zeal.
The major point is that Hanukkah, like all religious holidays and traditions, has evolved over the centuries. It came to be understood – and celebrated – and loved – by subsequent generations of Jews, far more as an affirmation of faith in the face of oppression, and courage in the struggle for justice and freedom. It is the later legend of the miracle of the oil that is remembered in popular perception -more than the military victory and the political complexities of the original events – emphasizing the spiritual themes of the festival, and reflecting Hanukkah’s even more ancient roots in winter solstice celebrations of light. In our time, Hanukkah has become a very universalistic affirmation of diversity – embodying in contemporary America a meaning that is arguably very different from the narrow interpretation Brook’s focuses upon. Today, the menorah shines as a symbol of Judaism’s confident engagement in our broader culture, rather than what may have been the Maccabee’s rejection of a tyrannically enforced imposition of alien religious values. I would invite David Brooks to shed his critical cynicism and embrace Hanukkah’s creative power as a vehicle for the celebration of Jewish identity and ideals, that also shares in the broader celebration of this season’s most universal and inclusive themes…humanistic spiritual ideals that believers on every point of the spectrum can affirm.



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Mere_Me

posted December 15, 2009 at 8:26 am


0 x 0 = atheism
The fool and his heart as it were.
Responding to the “new” atheists is seriously, a waste of time. Let ‘em babble, and pat ‘em on the head, and move on.



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Brian Griffith

posted December 15, 2009 at 4:19 pm


Thanks Rabbi Lerner, that was really well presented, especially about the false choices usually given as the options in response to imperialistic powers.
I wrote a short review of Hitchens’ God is not Great book which you might like:
Religion as Hitchens defines it, is belief in an infallible, superhuman authority, which humanity should obey. This belief, he argues, is the core of all religions, and therefore all religion is anti-democratic. With a globe-spanning stream of examples he shows us how “All religions take care to silence or to execute those who question them …” Or, they would if they could: “Is it not obvious to all, the pious ask, that religious authority is paramount, and that those who decline to recognize it have forfeited their right to exist?” So in the great war of freedom with absolutism, Hitchens feels it time to name the real root of the problem. Religion, he believes, must be exposed as the human craving for infallibility.
In the way Hitchens defines religion, he accepts that absolutists are the real representatives of it. This leads him to say that Martin Luther King Jr. was not really a Christian. Why? Because King’s devotion to equal respect for people of all cultures contradicted traditional claims that only Christianity comes from God. This reminds me of conservative Christian writer Rod Dreher, who recently rejected Barack Obama’s claim to be a Christian. Dreher said that Obama merely claimed to be inspired by Jesus’ life, without also asserting that Jesus was “begotten not made.” In relation to Islam, Hitchens seems to accept that fanatics for superhuman authority are the real Muslims. And rather than arguing for a more compassionate version of religion as Fatima Mernissi or Barack Obama have tried to do, Hitchens attempts to convince moderate Muslims that their whole tradition is stupid.
In rejecting the superhuman authority of religion, Hitchens comes to a perfectly reasonable conclusion: “Human beings and institutions are imperfect, to be sure. But there could be no clearer proof that holy institutions are man-made.” To this, Joseph Campbell, Margaret Mead, Sigmund Freud, or Carl Jung would all agree. The history of religion is the story of humanity’s quest for meaning, direction, and fulfillment. What’s so non-divine about that? Religion has evolved through endless debate, as different human beings advanced different visions of justice, beauty, and happiness. Hitchens is right to say this debate would be more civil if the debaters stopped claiming to be God’s mouthpiece. But then would the debate be less, or more holy?



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Ben

posted December 16, 2009 at 8:13 pm


“and enlightened Jewish urban dwellers, who pointed to the reactionary tribalistic elements of Torah and sided with the Greeks when they declared circumcision and study of Torah illegal and banned the observance of the Sabbath.”
No offense but that is what the Macabbees claim and is most like false, a blood libel against the Greeks. It should be noted that there were tens of thousands of Jews throughout the various Greek and Hellenistic city states and the broad documented history is that they THRIVED.
And the Greeks did not ban circumcision, they banned the forced circumcision of Non Jews by Jews which was common given the practice of Jewish slave holders forcing slaves to be circumcised.
They also did not ban the Sabbath, they banned the banning of work by non Jews on the Sabbath — just like we do in the states in the 21st century.



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Susan

posted December 17, 2009 at 7:17 am


I hardly think that the Hellenistic Assyrians who wanted to put statues of Zeus in the Temple and force Jews to worship them represented Greek rationality. The Jews were fighting for religious freedom and for the right to worship differently from their rulers.



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TC Chase

posted December 30, 2009 at 9:36 pm


But Brian,
Hitchens and Dawkins present themselves as the mouthpieces of all of mankind.
If they would stop pretending to be more important than just some guys with a beef against the wind, they may be something worthwhile to listen to. Mostly, they are just hucksters making money off the duped masses they dupe.



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Edwin Tait

posted January 5, 2010 at 4:45 pm


Ben,
Any documentation for your last two paragraphs? I take your point that we should look at the accounts we have critically given their heavy bias. But there’s a difference between saying “we don’t know that the Greeks did all the horrible things attributed to them in the Jewish sources” and making up a more pro-Greek alternative account unsupported by any evidence at all. Perhaps you have evidence of which I’m unaware. Please point to it.



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Tonya

posted January 12, 2010 at 10:42 am


It saddens me that you are unable to present your position without personally attacking those with whom you disagree.
Perhaps one day, with time and reflection, you’ll be able to get past your baseless hatred of those whose opinions differ from yours.



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James Ray

posted January 19, 2010 at 9:37 am


This CHD Hair Straightener by far the best straightener ,The iron heats up VERY quickly and the handle doesn’t get hot so it is easy to hold. If you are considering buying this, I highly recommend it! It’s worth the money, I promise!



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Kilo

posted December 3, 2010 at 12:38 pm


Great article! I used it as the basis for a speech by Judah Maccabee



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