My yoga teacher sent me the below link to George Saunders’ convocation speech at Syracuse University for the class of 2013. It’s worth a read:
Last week, the Times of India reported that the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh is making yoga mandatory for school children in grades 1 – 5. What a great idea!
The article can be found online at http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-07-31/news/40914078_1_yoga-teachers-chouhan-master-trainers.
The achievement is evidently impressive enough that Harvard University has sent an interdisciplinary team to “map the metabolism of the city,” according to Prof. Rahul Mehrotra, Professor and Chair of Urban Design and Planning. “While the Kumbh is often portrayed by Western media as a mythic spectacle of colorful humanity, Mehrotra and his team were more impressed with the everyday functioning of the mundane. In a country that can barely keep up with its exploding megacities — where electricity, clean water, and safety are rarely assured for hundreds of millions — how does a pop-up tent city manage to run so smoothly?”
Despite the display of devotion as well as organizational and logistical acumen on such a staggering scale, coverage of the mela in western media tends to be unflattering at best, with no mention of the excellent civic arrangements usually. Media also tends to be obsessed with portraying the “Naga Sadhus”, a marijuana-smoking Hindu sect of sadhus who are often naked, with matted hair and covered with a thick layer of ash, and who usually have the honor of taking the first ritual dip in the river on the holy bathing days.
Who are the naga sadhus? Why are they naked? Why are they known for violence? Why do they smoke marijuana if they are holy men? HAF is asked these questions more often than any others.
During Mughal rule, Muslim violence against sadhus was very high. However, sadhus could not retaliate due to their vow of ahimsa (or non-violence). Madhusudhana Saraswathi, then a Shankaracharya, approached King Akbar requesting him to help curb the violence. Akbar effectively ignored the request, and the creation of the Naga Sadhu tradition was the result. Naga Sadhus are trained to withstand any weather, have no worldly connections or institutional responsibilities, and have no need for clothes. They liberally smear themselves with ash to provide some insulation against the weather. They never initiate violence, but they will retaliate if other sadhus are attacked. That was the proposition that the Naga Sadhus created. That’s why they have the honor of bathing first at the Sangam in honor of their role as protectors of the other sadhus. Finally, as their role is not to impart spiritual instruction to others, knowledge transfer is not affected by their marijuana use.
Spiritually, they are followers of a great ancient saint named Dattatreya, and they seek to attain his status. Dattatreya was so merged with the universalconsciousness that he cared not in the least for his body, not even enough to wear clothes. The Naga sadhus is a corruption of the term Nanga (meaning naked) sadhus.
Today, Hindus around the world celebrate Diwali, the Festival of Lights, which symbolizes the light of knowledge over the darkness of ignorance. It’s a day for children to light small firecrackers, family and friends to exchange mithai, and celebrants to light diyas in their homes. As Diwali greetings fill my inbox, one in particular stood out. “For an oil lamp to burn, the wick has to be in the oil, yet out of the oil. If the wick is drowned in oil, it cannot bring light. Life is like the wick of the lamp; you have to be in the world yet remaining untouched by it.”
These three lines so beautifully capture the Hindu philosophy behind yoga, explained by Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras: “Yoga is the cessation of mental fluctuations.” If we are constantly drowned in emotions of happiness or sadness, jealousy or anger, stress or laziness, then our mental state is always fluctuating. Our emotions arise from attachments to “things” – whether we are in search of them, or have them and can’t bear to part with them, or lost them – we are emotionally vested in “things.” We are happy when we get them, sad when we lose them, jealous when someone else has them, disappointed when we try to get them but can’t, and angry when they are taken from us. So, the mind becomes a victim to constantly changing emotions.
In the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna explains:
“For a person dwelling on the objects of the sense, attachment to them develops; From attachment, selfish desire develops; form desire, anger develops. From anger comes bewilderment, disturbed memory; from disturbed memory, loss of discernment; from loss of discernment one becomes lost.”
The goal of yoga is to reduce the emotional highs and lows in order to find a more balanced state allowing us to find inner peace. Krishna continues:
“There is no discernment for one who is not absorbed in yoga; and for one not absorbed in yoga, there is no meditative state; And for one who has no meditative state, there is no peace – for one who is not peaceful, from where is happiness to come?”
So, like the wick of the diya, the goal is to be able to live amongst “things” but not be drowned by our desire for them. And the in wake of Hurricane Sandy, with so many New Yorkers continuing to struggle for basic necessities, it’s a good time to try to reign in our many wants and find contentment with all that we already possess.