The Seventh Mark of Compassion
Five years before charitable choice, a thinker often cited as an influence on Bush says faith should undergird social action
Affiliation and Bonding, Categorization and Discernment, Employment and Freedom, and the seventh seal on the social covenant of the late nineteenth century was the relationship with God to all these things. "True philanthropy must take into account spiritual as well as physical needs," one charity magazine proposed. Poverty will be dramatically reduced if "the victims of appetite and lust and idleness...revere the precepts of the Bible and form habits of industry, frugality, and self-restraint," Pennsylvania state charity commissioners declared. The frequent conclusion was that demoralized men and women need much greater help than "the dole of organized charities."
There were some differences between Christians and Jews about that help. The biblically orthodox Christians of the late nineteenth century worshipped a God who came to earth and showed in life and death the literal meaning of compassion--suffering with. Christians believed that they--creatures made after God's image--were called to suffer with also, in gratitude for the suffering done for them, and in obedience to biblical principles. (The goal of such suffering, of course, was to promote those principles, and not to grease a slide into sin.) But Jewish teaching stressed the pursuit of righteousness through the doing of good deeds, particularly those showing loving-kindness (gemilut chasadim). If the difference was significant, both approaches led to abundant volunteering.
Similarities in theistic understanding, furthermore, led both Christians and Jews to emphasize the importance of personal charity, rather than a clockwork deistic approach. The Good Samaritan in Christ's story bandaged the victim's wounds, put him on a donkey, took him to an inn, and nursed him there. The Talmud also portrayed personal service as "much greater than charity," defined as money-giving. Christians and Jews also had many similarities in understanding because they both read an Old Testament that repeatedly depicted compassion not as an isolated noun, but as the culmination of a process. Repeatedly in Judges and other books, the Bible told how when Israelites had sinned they were to repent and turn away from their sin; only then, as a rule, would God show them compassion. Late nineteenth-century Americans who read the Bible regularly did not see God as a sugardaddy who merely felt sorry for people in distress. They saw God showing compassion while demanding change, and they tried to do the same. Groups such as the Industrial Christian Alliance noted that they used "religious methods"--reminding the poor that God made them and had high expectations of them--to "restore the fallen and helpless to self-respect and self-support."