The death toll of the Bolshevik Revolution from starvation, disease, war and execution has been estimated between 7 million and 10 million by such historians as Robert Cowley and Geoffrey Parker in their Reader’s Companion to Military History (1996), Norman Davies in Europe, A History (1998) and Norman Lowe’s Mastering Twentieth Century Russian History (2002). However, the Soviet Union suffered even worse at the hands of brutal dictator Josef Stalin in horrors described in Alexandr Solzhenitzen’s classic One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich and The Gulag Archipelago. Nanci Adler in her Victims of Soviet Terror (1993) cites the following Russian historians: Chistyakovoy, who says 20 million were killed during the 1930s alone; and Dyadkin, who estimated 56 to 62 million "unnatural deaths" for the USSR overall with 34 to 49 million under Stalin. Norman Davis in Europe A History (1998) estimates the number of Russians killed by fellow Russians at 50 million between 1924 and 1953, excluding WW II war losses. Solzhenitsyn estimated 60 million.
World War II (1939-45)»