The Assisted Suicide of Sigmund Freud
Both sides in the debate project their views onto the professor's final exit
(RNS)--Diagnosed with cancer of the mouth, the cigar-smoking genius with the larger-than-life ego persuaded his doctor to euthanize him when the time was right.
When Sigmund Freud decided the time was right--16 years after the diagnosis--Dr. Max Schur gave him 21 milligrams of morphine. The father of psychoanalysis, the man who popularized such terms as "id" and "oedipal complex," died within hours.
But the impact of Freud's final exit endures. As Congress grapples with a national anti-suicide bill, Maine prepares for a November referendum on legalizing physician-assisted suicide, and Oregon continues its landmark experiment with doctor-aided death, Freud has emerged as a powerful emblem for the right-to-die movement.
The pro-euthanasia authors of an article published in a medical journal have labeled Freud's 1939 passing "physician-assisted death" and "voluntary active euthanasia." Other, anti-euthanasia physicians argue that Freud's palliative care (treatment designed to minimize pain and suffering but not to cure) would be commended today as appropriate, compassionate, and legal. Either way, the details illustrate an important but often overlooked point in the contemporary political, medical, and moral debate over euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.
Most people, like Freud, choose doctor-aided death not to avoid pain but to exert autonomy. This truth is confirmed in studies from the Netherlands, the only country where euthanasia is allowed nationwide, and from Oregon, the only U.S. state to legalize physician-assisted suicide.
Yet as the U.S. Senate responds toOregon's assisted-suicide law
with the so-called Pain Relief Promotion Act, pain--not autonomy--remains center stage. The bill would ban use of federally controlled substances, such as barbiturates and morphine, in assisted suicides. It overwhelmingly passed the House last October and awaits action in the Senate Judiciary Committee.
Freud knew pain.
It came with the malignant oral epithelioma that was first diagnosed in 1923, a consequence of the cigars he could never give up, the cigars he believed made him more creative and productive. Freud had to use crude prostheses to talk and eat, and he dealt with the pain of more than 30 surgical procedures. He also endured repeated primitive X-rays and radium therapy.
Yet in the years from diagnosis to death, he wrote 20 books and scientific articles as he directed the international development of psychoanalysis. "Based on Schur's writings, reading between the lines, I think the reason Freud chose this type of death was control," says Dr. Jack McCue, the co-author, with Dr. Lewis Cohen, of "Freud's Physician-Assisted Death," which was published last year in the Archives of Internal Medicine. "He really was a control freak, so it's not surprising he would want to control his own death. He desired and achieved a reconciled death, what he would consider a good death."