Deepak Chopra and Intent

Deepak Chopra and Intent

Is a Mind-Element Needed to Interpret Quantum Mechanics? Do physically undetermined choices enter into the evolution of the physical universe? Part 2

posted by Admin

By Deepak Chopra, MD and Henry Stapp, PhD

The time is ripe for a theory of cosmic mind to be seen by all scientists, not as a speculative notion that conflicts with basic scientific principles, but as a necessary part of a rational science-based understanding of ourselves and nature. The earlier idea, cemented into science by the work of Isaac Newton, was that mind belongs to subjective reality “in here” while physics deals with objective physical reality “out there” and that latter by itself was the proper subject of physical science. The undoing of this separation is one of the fascinating sagas of modern quantum theory. Yet even if you are an outsider to the intricate mathematics of quantum mechanics, you can sympathize with the frustration of scientists who use their minds every day without really knowing what the mind is or where it came from.

Some physicists attempted to bypass the thorny issue of mind by dividing Nature into two physical realms, the microscopic (the small scale where quantum mechanics has been triumphant) and the macroscopic (the large scale where everyday objects obey the laws of classical physics). The microscopic description is designed to include all of the micro-physical elements from which all physical things are made. To assert that this description fails for large things and is replaced by another needs careful explaining. The standard answer, in brief, is that the macro-description is not a description of physical reality itself, but is rather a description of our perceptions of that reality, and that the laws of nature entail that the act of perceiving it not only informs us, but also alters the world itself in a way that brings it into concordance with our collective experience. These alterations are the famous quantum “collapses”.

But these reactions of the world of physically described micro-elements to our acts of perceiving mean that the micro-physical (quantum) part of nature is more mind-like in its behavior than matter-like. When new information is acquired, or appears in an observer’s stream of consciousness, the world of micro elements makes a sudden global jump to a new structure compatible with the new information. But that kind of jump is how “ideas” behave: they suddenly acquire a new form compatible with the new information. Thus the physically described micro-structure is fundamentally “idea-like” in character.
This sudden jump is “global”: it extends in principle over all of physical space at an instant of time. The behavior of the micro world is therefore more “idea-like” than matter-like also in this global sense. In the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics this sudden change in the physical state is due to an action made by “nature”. It is as if the global micro-world is an idea in nature’s mind, and that nature, in response to the observer’s probing of the physical world, changes her mind.

A second problem pertains to another “instantaneous” aspect of quantum mechanics. Within that theory one can consider a class of well defined and often actually performed experiments in which two experimenters working in far-apart labs can each arrange to have last minute choices made as to which of two alternative possible measurements will be made in their respective labs. It can rationally argued that these choices of what to measure can be considered “free”, in the sense of not depending upon the system being measured. The two experiments are performed at the same time in the two far-apart labs. Then it can then be proved that the truth of these empirically verified predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reconciled with the demand that, for each of the two regions, the outcome there cannot depend on the free choice made at essentially the same instant in the faraway region about which experiment will be performed in that faraway region.

This conclusion is incompatible with the idea that the physically described systems are essentially matter-like, with the velocity of transfer of information therefore limited to less than or equal to the speed of light. Once again the behavior of the quantum mechanical features of the physically described world is incompatible with the idea that that those physical features reside, in and are carried by, matter. These features behave is as if they were ideas in a globally cognizant mind that can instantly know, when choosing an empirical outcome in one region, which experiment is being performed at essentially the same instant in very far away region.

There is, of course, strong resistance in science to jumping from these “as ifs” to the serious alternative of building a contemporary-science-based theory of nature on a conjunction personal minds carrying our conscious experiences and an objective mind carrying the quantum mechanically described properties, with the detailed properties of these minds specifically tailored to explain empirical data. Such a theory is, in fact, apart from choice of words, what quantum mechanics already is!

Another problem with dividing Nature into microscopic quantum-physics parts and macroscopic classical-physics parts is that classical physics assumes the observer is passive. As you watch snow fall or a tree grow, your observation supposedly doesn’t influence those processes. Yet this seemingly simple assumption has a hidden dimension. How do you know that snow is falling or a tree is growing? Through your mind, which delivers the only version of reality that human beings can possibly know and experience. Trees and snow, along with everything else in the perceived macroscopic world, exist as experiences created mentally, although we don’t know how. We know only that the idea that our perceptions match an unperceived reality is unprovable. So unless physics includes a theory of mind it can’t declare some reality “out there” is somehow connected to our experience “in here.”

The dual aspect of quantum behavior, both physical and psychological, is included in the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics devised by the brilliant Hungarian-American theorist John von Neumann. The fact that the known physical laws for the physical state of the particles can’t explain how they behave is critical here. Something beyond the physical state is involved.

Von Neumann’s quantum mechanics is explicitly dualistic. But the trouble with a conception of nature composed of two fundamentally different parts is the resulting impossibility of understanding the connection between the parts. The fact that in orthodox quantum mechanics the physical part turns out to be basically idea-like converts the nominal dualism into an idealistic monism. This conclusion, which has been reached by many if not most of the greatest philosophers of the past, but which had been hard to reconcile with science, now appears to be entailed by the orthodox principles of quantum physics.

(To be cont.)

Deepak Chopra, MD is the author of more than 80 books with twenty-two New York Times bestsellers including ”Super Brain,” co-authored with Rudi Tanzi, PhD. He serves as the founder of The Chopra Foundation and co-founder of The Chopra Center for Wellbeing. Join him at The Chopra Foundation Sages and Scientists Symposium 2014. www.choprafoundation.org 

Henry Stapp is a theoretical physicist at the University of California’s Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, specializing in the conceptual and mathematical foundations of quantum theory, and in particular in the quantum aspects of the relationship between our streams of conscious experience and the physical processes occurring in our brains. Stapp worked closely with Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, and John Wheeler, and is author of two books on the quantum mechanical foundation of the connection between mind and matter: “Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics;” and “Mindful Universe: Quantum Mechanics and the Participating Observer.” These works lay the foundation for a science-based approach to the question of human free will.

Is a Mind-Element Needed to Interpret Quantum Mechanics? Do physically undetermined choices enter into the evolution of the physical universe?

posted by Admin

By Deepak Chopra, MD and Henry Stapp, PhD

Pick at random any TV show about the universe, and the visuals will be dominated by a black void sprinkled with billions of galaxies. Such images give the impression of a vast emptiness foreign to human existence. Our bodies would perish within minutes of stepping into outer space; our minds struggle to grasp cosmic riddles that extend beyond the limits of time and space. But visual images are misleading, because they miss the most crucial element in the universe, an element that suddenly and unexpectedly humanizes it.

This crucial element is mind.

Over a century ago, the quantum revolution opened the way for cosmic mind. The founders of quantum mechanics needed to account for huge differences between their mathematical model of the universe, which is composed of fields of potentialities, and the universe as we perceive it, which is composed of solid objects and events that actually happen. To achieve a reconciliation the founders assumed that reality was composed of two parts, mind and matter, which interacted with each other according to some new laws that they specified. This departure from the prior (classical-physicalist) assumption that mind was a mere side-effect of brain activity was such a startling proposal that it basically split physics in two, with one camp (the physicalists) insisting that matter alone, plus an element of quantum chance, determines every physical property of the universe, and the other camp embracing mind as the key to certain otherwise unexplained mysteries. For several decades now the first, physicalist approach has been ascendant in the minds of many working physicists. But the advance of neuroscience, coupled with the difficulty of accounting in purely mechanical terms for complex behaviors of living organisms, has ignited renewed interest in the possibility that our minds may not be the useless and causally ineffectual appendages that the classical-physicalist dogma has proclaimed them to be.

In what way does the universe display mind-like behavior? Once you admit that this is a legitimate question, the answers are many. Too many, one might say, because there is no consensus about what mind is, and so speculation can run wild. Some thinkers point to the incredible fine-tuning of the various constants that must mesh in order for spacetime, matter, and energy to exist: how did this fine-tuning come about? Other thinkers point to the inability of randomness to account for the emergence of DNA and life on Earth. Still others cut the Gordian knot and declare that the human mind is enough to support the existence of cosmic mind—every person is the cosmic mind writ small (or it could be the other way around: universal mind is the human mind writ large).

The basic features of the evolving universe that bring the action of mind into play are choices. For anything to actually “happen” in quantum mechanics, two things have to occur. First, a person has to ask a yes/no question about whether they will have a certain experience or not, then nature has to choose the answer to their question, yes or no. So, there are two choices being made, one is the choice of the question being asked, and the second is the choice of the answer being given.

The mathematical machinery of quantum mechanics is built around these paired choices of questions and answers. The answer to the posed question is specified by the famous quantum random choice. But how is the question chosen? The answer is “by the mind of an observing agent, on the basis of the perceived needs of that organism.” Thus the key choices that play an essential role in the evolution of the universe come from mind.

Before the quantum revolution, billiard balls were often used as examples in physics because they neatly illustrate the laws of motion set down by Newton. Quantum mechanics destroyed this neatness and replaced the table of billiard balls by a table filled with probability distributions of particles. But probability distributions of particles are not the same as real distributions of particles. They are in some sense imaginary. They can be distributions existing in the imaginations or minds of some human beings, or perhaps in an imagined-to-exist cosmic mind. In any case the notion of probability distribution of particles seems to exist in a mind. But in quantum theory the basic “material” aspects of nature are essentially just these probability distributions. Consequently both the mind-like and matter-like aspects of nature seem to be essentially mind-like. Ultimately, the universe cannot be built out of fundamentally disconnected parts. This suggests that the whole of reality may be essentially underpinned by a single, unified mental structure, which we might call cosmic mind.

Thus, by following quantum theory to its logical conclusion, we are forced to bring consciousness into the structure of the universe at a fundamental level. Only by maintaining the fiction that science stands apart from Nature can you leave mind out of the equation.

To quote a few eminent scientists who were able to see beyond this fiction:

There is obviously only one alternative, namely the unification of minds …. [I]n truth there is only one mind. – Erwin Schrödinger

Mind, rather than emerging as a late outgrowth in the evolution of life, has existed always… [as] the source and condition of physical reality. – George Wald

Conscious observers are the minds that make the universe manifest. – John Archibald Wheeler

The beauty of accepting that mind is fundamental in Nature is that it obliterates the powerful visual image of the universe as a cold, empty void. Instead, we come back to a universe that human beings belong in, our rightful home. Nothing in Nature rules out a super-mind at the foundation of the cosmos. What can’t be ruled out becomes possible, and then it’s a matter of offering good answers to as many mysteries as you can. Imagine iron filings dancing around on a sheet of paper. One physicist says that they are dancing on their own, due to a law of Nature that hasn’t quite been worked out. Another physicist says that someone is moving a magnet underneath the paper, and that’s why the iron filings appear to dance. Like it or not, the first physicist would have to admit that the second explanation is possible, even though neither physicist can see the magnet.

In the next post we’ll describe how the cosmic mind, although invisible, sets the cosmos dancing. For now, here’s the formal reasoning that shows why cosmic mind can’t be ruled out.

1. Quantum mechanics, as understood by its founders, shifted the foundations of physical science from what is described in physical terms (i.e., numbers attached to a space-time point) to our human experiences pertaining to such properties. The observer was no longer cut off from the observation.

2. The Copenhagen interpretation of QM is in some sense dualistic, because it contained two parts: one part described in psychological/mental terms and another part described in physical/materialistic terms. In the quantum description of what is happening these two parts are causally entwined: the observer participates in the effects upon the physical world that they are observing.

3. Whereas Newton’s physical universe was an actual “thing,” in QM the physical aspect represents a mere “potentiality” for what can become actual. The universe doesn’t behave like material stuff. There are abrupt jumps, leaps, and changes of state at the heart of quantum behavior. These sudden responses to increments in knowledge make the material aspect more mind-like than matter-like. Hence both the “material” part and the “mental” part are mind-like in character.

4. If the universe is mind-like, what about the tiny invisible elementary particles that occur in QM? Photons, electrons, and the rest aren’t part of our normal experience of the world. Yet at least since the time of the early Greeks, there have been thinkers who can conceive of a world made of persisting elementary particles. If our minds can do this, there is no rational reason why a universe of probabilities of elementary particles can’t exist as an evolving idea in a universal or cosmic mind. If we can conceive something, so presumably can a cosmic mind in which our minds are embedded.

5. What parallels exist between our minds and cosmic mind? We have intentions. Our intentions stem ultimately from our intentions to survive and create. We want to survive in order to express our creative impulse. Given a super mind with vast powers to create worlds of various kinds, which ones would have the propensity to survive? Perhaps those built from a conception of indestructible elementary particles. The elementary particles may not all be indestructible, but they carry conserved quantities such as energy, which should tend to make the universe both survive, and have the capacity to do things.

6. This understanding doesn’t completely explain normal human experience. For example, it doesn’t tell us why grass looks “green” rather than “blue,’ to name two qualia (qualities of experience) that allow us to mentally distinguish differing properties of the physically described everyday world. QM does not answer questions about why we experience qualia in our sensations. But within our quantum-based world view it would not be unnatural for cosmic mind to impose by fiat certain mind-brain connections that would allow our minds to distinguish important differences in the physically described world.

The notion that the world is basically mind-like is far from new in philosophy, but the problem has always been, from Plato to the present day, how to reconcile a mind-like Nature with the prevailing physics. What makes the quantum situation so promising is that the tables have turned.

Basic physics has spectacularly solved the operation of elementary particles, and brings mind into the essential machinery of the reality. The need for reality to be ultimately unified at the basic level forces us to consider that a cosmic mind is the organizing agent behind the observable universe. The outstanding issue is why mind, after being ignored by modern science, turns out to be a necessity that future science cannot do without.
(To be continued.)

Deepak Chopra, MD is the author of more than 80 books with twenty-two New York Times bestsellers including”Super Brain,” co-authored with Rudi Tanzi, PhD. He serves as the founder of The Chopra Foundation and co-founder of The Chopra Center for Wellbeing. Join him at The Chopra Foundation Sages and Scientists Symposium 2014. www.choprafoundation.org 

Henry Stapp is a theoretical physicist at the University of California’s Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, specializing in the conceptual and mathematical foundations of quantum theory, and in particular in the quantum aspects of the relationship between our streams of conscious experience and the physical processes occurring in our brains. Stapp worked closely with Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, and John Wheeler, and is author of two books on the quantum mechanical foundation of the connection between mind and matter: “Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics;” and “Mindful Universe: Quantum Mechanics and the Participating Observer.” These works lay the foundation for a science-based approach to the question of human free will.

Skepticism and a Million Dollar Challenge (Part 2)

posted by Admin

When I made a video offering a million dollars to anyone who could explain how the brain produces the appearance of the three-dimensional world, I didn’t have a publicity stunt in mind. I wanted to draw attention to consciousness research, which has been burgeoning. The public isn’t aware of how big a turn-around this represents. For a long time consciousness was taboo in the scientific community. The reason isn’t hard to fathom. To explore consciousness means delving into subjectivity, the personal inner world. Science deals in objectivity, data, and hard facts instead.

 

Yet there is no substantive reason why science shouldn’t go on a journey inward, the actual difficulty being that resistance was strong. All kinds of things occur in our inner world that scientists are reluctant to confront, including spirituality, art, morals, emotions, and so on. There’s a general assumption, which is quite wrong, that all of these activities can be reduced to brain functions, and only then will the mind be subjugated to the scientific method and its demand for data and hard facts.

 

This is an example of the materialistic fallacy, the notion that once you understand the physical side of a phenomenon, you understand the phenomenon itself. In the previous post we touched on the hostility generated by the skeptic movement, which sees itself as the arch defender of science and materialism. As part of its purpose, the skeptic movement is all about debunking. It zealously lumps together hoaxsters, charlatans, faith healers, and stage illusionists with Jesus, the Buddha, all people of faith, and the world’s wisdom traditions. Throw them all out, the skeptical dogma proclaims, and the world will be better for it.

 

The emotional side of the debate grabs headlines, as when Richard Dawkins attends a rally in London demanding that the Pope be tried for crimes against humanity (which follows his core belief that religion lies at the heart of “all evil”). But emotion and prejudice cloud a real and very positive change in science. Not the abandonment of materialism, although it’s become shakier as a world view for explaining all things, rather, there is a rising generation of researchers and thinkers who now take consciousness seriously.

 

Their rallying point is the so-called “hard problem,” named by David Chalmers, an Australian philosopher and cognitive scientist who gave a tag to a centuries-old mystery:  How does the brain relate to the mind? Materialists argue that the hard problem is solved by brain function, since it can be shown with certainty that various areas of the brain light up on an fMRI as a person thinks, feels, or acts in a certain way. But this is by no means convincing. The brain is totally dark and silent, yet somehow it evokes a world of light and sound. The brain is filled with trillions of separate electrical and chemical events, yet these separate occurrences cohere into a unified picture of reality.

 

In no way has any scientist been able to detect the point at which molecules of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon–the building blocks of the brain–begin to  think. It is merely assumed by materialists that the brain is the same as the mind.  This is like seeing an empty car in a parking lot and assuming that it drives itself. The mind is invisible and therefore can be detected (or so materialism argues) by examining its physical traces, which are detectable as brain activity. This only deepens the fallacy. Would you claim to understand Mozart because you can take apart a radio that plays his music?

 

The hard problem lies at the basis of my million dollar challenge to skeptics. That it is met with contemptuous ridicule by professional skeptics means very little–they do what they do, scurrilous and dishonest as it winds up being. The Amazing Randi’s million dollar paranormal challenge, suspended after ten years in 2010, is trumpeted as proof that the paranormal is a fraud. In fact, the conditions of the prize set up multiple hurdles and catches to insure that the money couldn’t be won. I insist that the whole project is a red herring, a distraction from the issues posed by consciousness. The paranormal will never be settled until the normal is explained. The greatest miracle isn’t raising the dead but the everyday experience by which reality emerges in our awareness. I’m willing to endure the bad faith of the skeptic movement to bring to light how vital it is for human evolution to solve the mystery of reality, without prejudice, false assumptions, second-hand beliefs, and spiteful animus.

 

Deepak Chopra, MD is the author of more than 80 books with twenty-two New York Times bestsellers including Super Brainco-authored with Rudi Tanzi, Phd. He serves as the founder of The Chopra Foundation and co-founder of The Chopra Center for Wellbeing. Join him at The Chopra Foundation Sages and Scientists Symposium 2014. www.choprafoundation.org

Getting Zombies Excited (It Takes a Million-Dollar Challenge)

posted by Admin

In science, problems get solved faster when the pot begins to boil. Dormant questions need motivation, which is why I posed a million-dollar challenge to anyone in the materialist camp who could demonstrate how matter turns into mind. (Please see the two preceding posts, which set up this provocative issue.) In the wake of the challenge, a stir was indeed created. The general public isn’t aware that 99% of neuroscientists, biologists, and physicists interested in the mind-brain problem assume without question that the brain creates the mind. This is one of those assumptions that, once exploded, seems ridiculous in hindsight.

 

It’s not exploded yet, but we’re getting closer. Consider what it means to say that your brain creates your mind. Somewhere in the fabric of time, floating molecules of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, the basic elements in organic chemistry, organized a complex clump of molecules that learned to think, to take in the three-dimensional world, and finally to become aware of what they were doing. This seems like a totally untenable position to me, and to a growing body of scientists who are adopting a far different view, that mind came first, bringing with it the organizing power to evolve the structure of the human brain.

 

At first blush the two possibilities seem equal and perhaps equally improbable. If the materialists are correct, there has to be a way for matter to learn to think, which has never been proven. If the consciousness camp is right, mind has to find a way to create molecules. The reason that the second position makes sense is that our thoughts are creating molecules all the time–the chemical makeup of the brain is altered with every thought, feeling, and sensation. That is indisputable. But the bias in favor of materialism is strong, upheld mainly by inertia. Why bother to re-examine the entire creation when it’s obvious, we are told, that we live in a physical universe?

 

The answer is this: We don’t live in a physical universe as defined by rocks, trees, mountains, and Chinese porcelain. The quantum revolution long ago unmasked the illusion of physicality, proving with exact mathematical certainty that matter consists of waves in an infinite quantum field. How these waves transform into material objects remains one of the two greatest questions facing physics (the math is there but not the actual process). The other great unsolved mystery is to find the biological basis of mind.

 

My million-dollar challenge encompasses both issues. Until we know how matter relates to consciousness, there is nothing definitive to be said about the brain, normal experience, and the origin of thought. No one knows where their next thought is coming from. Thoughts emerge from a field of infinite possibilities, and the same is true of atoms and the subatomic particles that they are made of. My challenge isn’t frivolous, but I firmly believe no solution exists as long as anyone, however brilliant, adopts the physicalist position that everything about the mind, our inspiration, reasoning, love and joy, can be derived from physical properties. It’s like someone claiming that Picasso’s genius comes down to analyzing the paint he used.

 

Which brings us to the zombies. The relation between mind and matter has vexed philosophers for centuries.  In the twentieth century the problem landed in the lap of science, which began to search for hard data and provable facts. These would prove superior to woolly-minded speculation. But the only result anyone could obtain was in the area of brain activity. So the conclusion was drawn that if mind and brain are the same, there’s no need to go beyond super sophisticated fMRIs, and in short order the mind would have no more mysteries to yield. No serious thinker with a philosophy background can actually agree to this conclusion: it’s like saying that since Mozart’s music is played on the piano, all we need to know is how a piano works.

 

Science needed an ally from the philosophers’ camp, which it found in Daniel Dennett, who seemingly erased the whole dilemma by saying that the most mysterious products of the mind — a person’s sense of self, free will, and even self-awareness — are total illusions produced by brain chemistry. Since our every thought and action is actually the product of neuronal activity and nothing else, we are like zombies, showing all the signs of autonomous awareness while in fact existing on the level of biological machinery. (Zombie has become part of the terminology, synonymous with biological robot. I hope Dennett includes himself.) Dennett became notorious for his zombie metaphor, since he meant it literally. Only extreme materialists feel comfortable adopting such a theory, since it’s evident on the face of it that we do in fact have self-awareness, free will, creativity, choice, and all the other advantages of mind that are not enjoyed by a computer.

 

But Dennett was clever enough to take the materialist assumption to its logical conclusion. This leaves everyone with only two choices. Either the human mind is only an artifact of neuronal activity, including the minds of Shakespeare, Bach, and Einstein, or carrying the materialist assumption to its logical conclusion reveals its absurdity to begin with. Both alternatives are hotly argued, so the game is afoot. Apparently money can even motivate a zombie.

Deepak Chopra, MD is the author of more than 80 books with twenty-two New York Times bestsellers including Super Brain, co-authored with Rudi Tanzi, PhD. He serves as the founder of The Chopra Foundation and co-founder of The Chopra Center for Wellbeing. Join him at The Chopra Foundation Sages and Scientists Symposium 2014. www.choprafoundation.org

Previous Posts

Is a Mind-Element Needed to Interpret Quantum Mechanics? Do physically undetermined choices enter into the evolution of the physical universe? Part 2
By Deepak Chopra, MD and Henry Stapp, PhD The time is ripe for a theory of cosmic mind to be seen by all scientists, not as a speculative notion that conflicts with basic scientific principles, but as a necessary part of a rational science-based understanding of ourselves and nature. The earlie

posted 11:10:54am Jul. 21, 2014 | read full post »

Is a Mind-Element Needed to Interpret Quantum Mechanics? Do physically undetermined choices enter into the evolution of the physical universe?
By Deepak Chopra, MD and Henry Stapp, PhD Pick at random any TV show about the universe, and the visuals will be dominated by a black void sprinkled with billions of galaxies. Such images give the impression of a vast emptiness foreign to human existence. Our bodies would perish within minutes

posted 11:14:45am Jul. 14, 2014 | read full post »

Skepticism and a Million Dollar Challenge (Part 2)
When I made a video offering a million dollars to anyone who could explain how the brain produces the appearance of the three-dimensional world, I didn't have a publicity stunt in mind. I wanted to draw attention to consciousness research, which has been burgeoning. The public isn’t aware of how b

posted 10:44:25am Jul. 07, 2014 | read full post »

Getting Zombies Excited (It Takes a Million-Dollar Challenge)
In science, problems get solved faster when the pot begins to boil. Dormant questions need motivation, which is why I posed a million-dollar challenge to anyone in the materialist camp who could demonstrate how matter turns into mind. (Please see the two preceding posts, which set up this provocativ

posted 11:04:55am Jun. 30, 2014 | read full post »

Skepticism and a Million Dollar Challenge
When public perception is skewed and distorted, it's important to push back. I've found myself doing this in the arena of skepticism. Without a doubt we live in a skeptical age, and it affects everyone. To doubt is a tool for finding truth, but like every positive value, there are pitfalls. Skeptici

posted 1:51:41pm Jun. 23, 2014 | read full post »


Report as Inappropriate

You are reporting this content because it violates the Terms of Service.

All reported content is logged for investigation.