Of course some skeptics, including scholars, doubt that any of itever happened. But we'll leave that to the theologians. For our purposes,it's irrelevant. For thousands of years people have believed it happened. Eventoday millions and millions of people believe it happened. And whoever firstrecorded the tradition must have had some place in mind.
Many places mentioned in the Bible have retained their identity sowe can be sure where they are--Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Jericho are examples.Others we're pretty sure about--like Pithom and Ramses, the store-cities theBible says the Israelites built in Egypt.
Some sites, however, remain a puzzle. And Mt. Sinai is surely one of them.
A few years ago, the Biblical Archaeology Review listed ten different sites scholars had proposed for the holy mountain.
The tradition that the site known as Jebel Musa in Arabic is Mount Sinai goes back only to the 4th century A.D. That's more than 1500 years after thebest guess as to when Moses lived and the Exodus occurred (about 1250B.C.).
The mountain was first identified as Mount Sinai by Christian monks in theearly centuries of the monastic movement. In the 6th century A.D. theByzantine emperor Justinian built an imposing fortress and monastery to protectthe monks who were already living precariously at the foot of the mountainnear a small chapel commemorating the "burning bush."
Not until the 11th century A.D. was the monastery named for St. Catherine, a Christian martyr who was beheaded by a Roman emperor and whose head and body, according to legend, were brought there by five angels.
One difficulty in locating the mountain stems from the fact that theroute the Israelites took through the Sinai is also unclear. Most scholars,however, opt for the southern route and Jebel Musa is one of thehighest mountains in a rugged granite massif in this area. You might say that,given the long tradition and the likelihood of the southern route, that'senough to make the case.
Besides, Jebel Musa is clearly the most magnificent, awe-inspiring of all the candidates. Whether or not it is the real Mount Sinai, a trip there will leave you with a better understanding not only of why it may have happened there but the spiritual meaning of what happened.
More recently, scholars have put forward two other candidates basedon archaeological finds. One is Har Harkom (Mount Saffron in English), asite just inside Israel on the Israel-Egypt border, where Italianarchaeologist Emanuel Anati has been surveying and excavating since the 1980s.
Anati has discovered an enormous amount of rock art that identifies Har Harkomas an ancient pilgrimage site--a praying man with upraised arms, a sacred"eye of God," a grid with ten squares that may represent the Ten Commandments,and a twisting snake next to a straight line that may represent the staffthat was turned into a snake.
Anati also claims to have found hundreds of campsites, sacred pillars, tombs covered with piles of stones called tumuli, and even altars. The problem is that none of this can be dated to the biblical period, even by Anati. It's all much earlier.
So far, few, if any, scholars have agreed with Anati's identification of the site as Mount Sinai.The other candidate which has received a lot of publicity lately isin northwestern Saudi Arabia. The case for Jebel el-Lawz requires a bit of biblical background.
Moses married the daughter of Jethro, a priest of Midian. It was while he was tending Jethro's flocks that Moses first saw the "burning bush" at the foot of what would later be Mount Sinai.
So Mount Sinai must be in Midian. For a long time, the location ofMidian was uncertain. But archaeology has now changed this. We know whatMidianite pottery looks like. And we know that Midian was located in southernJordan and northwestern Saudi Arabia. Moreover, unlike the Sinai which wasunoccupied at the time of the Exodus, Midian has produced considerablearchaeological evidence of habitation.
So that is where many scholars now believe Mount Sinai is located. Just where, however, remains a mystery.
The highest peak in the area is Jebel el-Lawz, so that remains the best,if highly speculative, candidate.
A recent book called "The Gold of Exodus," touting the adventures oftwo non-scholars who snuck into Saudi Arabia to examine Jebel el-Lawz,makes exciting reading, but adds nothing to the scientific case for it.
Interestingly, Jewish tradition does not locate Mount Sinai. The theophanyon the mountain is frequently referred to in the Bible, yet there isnever a biblical pilgrimage to the holy mountain. And even later rabbinictradition does not identify where it is located.
Maybe we're not supposed to know. Maybe it is one of those things God intended to remain a mystery.