In the early 1980s Stanford political science professor Condoleezza Rice was quickly becoming a prominent public voice on international affairs. Her expertise earned her a position as advisor to the Joint Chiefs of Staff under the administration of the elder George Bush. In 1989, Bush appointed Rice director of Soviet and East European Affairs on the National Security Council. She returned to Stanford during the Bill Clinton administration in 1991 and served as provost of the university until being tapped as National Security Advisor by the younger President Bush in 2000. In January of 2005, after Bush was elected to a second term, Rice replaced Colin Powell as Secretary of State. She was the first African-American woman to serve in that position. Her efforts played a crucial role in shaping the most aggressive U.S. foreign policy in modern history.