(Cerebral Aneurysm; Intracranial Aneurysm; Intracerebral Aneurysm; Aneurysm, Brain; Aneurysm, Cerebral; Aneurysm, Intracranial; Aneurysm, Intracerebral)
Pronounced: brain an-your-ih-symEn Español (Spanish Version)
An aneurysm is a weakened blood vessel in the brain that collects blood. The bulging, blood-filled pocket can put pressure on parts of the brain, pressing on nearby nerves. This can cause symptoms or cause the blood vessel to rupture (hemorrhage). Early detection and diagnosis can help prevent severe or fatal complications. Many aneurysms go unnoticed for a lifetime and cause no symptoms.
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Aneurysms form in areas where the artery wall becomes thin or weak. Thinning artery walls and resulting aneurysms can be caused by a number of factors. Common causes include:
These factors increase your chance of developing a brain aneurysm. These risk factors also increase your chance of a rupture. Adults are more likely to develop an aneurysm than children. Females are at slightly higher risk. Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors:
- Old age
- Genetic diseases (circulatory, connective tissue, or polycystic kidney diseases)
- Family history of aneurysms
- Heavy alcohol use
- Drug abuse
- High blood pressure
- Traumatic head injury
- Arteriovenous malformations
If you have any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to a brain aneurysm. These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. Tell your doctor if you have any of these:
- Pain behind the eye
- Numbness, sometimes on one side of the face or body
- Weakness on one side of the body or face
- Vision changes
- Drooping eyelid
- Speech impairment
Most aneurysms do not cause symptoms until they leak or rupture. A leaking or ruptured aneurysm may cause:
- Stiff neck
- Confusion or sleepiness
- Loss of consciousness
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. Tests may include the following:
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Other medical conditions; lifestyle factors; as well as the type, size, and location of the aneurysm will direct treatment. For a known aneurysm that is not leaking or ruptured, treatment options include the following:
Your doctor may need to monitor you to see if the aneurysm gets larger or begins to leak.
Medicines are not used to fix an aneurysm. Medicines may be used to help lower blood pressure, treat pain, or stop side effects of the aneurysm, like seizures.
During this procedure, a catheter is thread up to the aneurysm. Coils, a special liquid, or balloons are used to fill the aneurysm and stop circulation, causing it to clot. This may need to be done more than once.
Surgical options include microvascular clipping or occlusion.
- Microvascular clipping—A neurosurgeon cuts off blood flow to the aneurysm.
- Microvascular occlusion—A neurosurgeon clamps off the entire artery leading to the aneurysm. Sometimes a bypass procedure (rerouting a new blood vessel) is done too.
In many cases, there is no known way to prevent an aneurysm from forming. To help reduce your chances of getting a brain aneurysm or having it burst, take the following steps:
- Control high blood pressure
- Stop smoking
- Avoid recreational drug use
Discuss with your doctor:
- Benefits and risks of oral contraceptives
- Whether it is safe to use daily aspirin or other pain medicines that may thin the blood
The Brain Aneurysm Foundation
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Brain Injury Association of Alberta
Heart and Stroke Foundation Canada
Brain Aneurysm Foundation Information website. Available at: http://www.bafound.org/info/factors.php . Accessed May 10, 2010.
Cerebral Aneurysm. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/ . Updated May 2011. Accessed May 29, 2011
Kirchheimer S. Subarachnoid hemorrhage. EBSCO Patient Education Reference Center. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16&topicID=1034 . Published March 1, 2010. Accessed April 26, 2010.
Mayo Clinic. Brain aneurysm. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/brain-aneurysm/DS00582 . Accessed October 28, 2010.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Cerebral aneurysm fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/cerebral_aneurysm/detail_cerebral_aneurysm.htm . Updated February 3, 2010. Accessed April 26, 2010.
Vlak Monique H.M, Rinkel, Gabriel J.E., et al. Trigger factors and their attributable risk for rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a case-crossover study. Stroke . 2011 May 5.
Last reviewed June 2011 by J. Thomas Megerian, MD, PhD, FAAP
Last updated Updated: 6/6/2011
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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