Eating for Appropriate Weight Gain During Pregnancy
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Eating for Appropriate Weight Gain During Pregnancy

image Some women may think of pregnancy as their ticket to eat anything they want, indulging any and all cravings and leaving portion control by the wayside. After all, they rationalize, they are “eating for two.” That thinking, however, may not be an ideal way when making food choices during pregnancy. Doctors advise pregnant women of the risks to both mother and child of excess weight gain during pregnancy.

Conversely, inadequate weight gain can also pose potential problems. So, how much weight should pregnant women gain and what nutrition guidelines will help them achieve it?

Guidelines for Weight Gain

Exactly how much weight gain to aim for will vary among women and depends on several factors, including the mother’s prepregnancy weight, height, age, and health status, as well as whether or not the birth will involve twins, triplets, or more. See your doctor to determine the best weight gain goal for your individual situation.

In general, the following guidelines are used:

  • Women beginning pregnancy at a normal weight (defined as body mass index [BMI] of 18.5-24.9) are advised to gain 25-35 pounds during pregnancy.
  • Underweight women (BMI 18.4 or less) are advised to gain 28-40 pounds.
  • Overweight women (BMI 25-29.9) are advised to gain 15-25 pounds.
  • Obese women (BMI 30 and over) are advised to gain 11-20 pounds.

Risks of Too Little or Too Much Weight Gain

Gaining the recommended amount of weight is one of many factors that may help ensure a healthy pregnancy. Gaining too little weight can increase the risk for delivering a low-birth weight baby, who may be at greater risk for developmental and health problems later on. Gaining too much weight can increase the mother’s risk for conditions, such as:

  • Pregnancy-induced hypertension
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Preterm birth
  • Cesarean delivery
  • Long-term obesity in the mother after the pregnancy is over. Gaining too much weight during pregnancy may make it difficult to lose the weight afterward. Women who gain the suggested weight during pregnancy tend to lose most of it once the baby is born and in the months shortly after.

The baby is also at risk for having a high-birth weight.

Maximizing Nutrition Without Maximizing Calories

The approach to healthful eating during pregnancy is two-fold: You want to eat for an appropriate weight gain, but you also want to make sure you and your unborn baby get all the nutrients needed. The best way to do that is to make sure your diet is high in healthy, nutrient-dense foods, and low in foods that provide lots of calories but little nutrition (such as cookies, chips, soda, and pastries). Limit foods that contain sugars and solid fats. Examples of items to limit are fried foods, cheese, whole milk, and fatty meats. Also, do not drink alcohol while pregnant.

MyPyramid logoYou can get additional guidance on nutrition by visiting the United States Department of Agriculture's MyPlate website. Here you will find information on how to eat from each of the food groups every day. The MyPlate image serves as a way to remind you of what should be on your plate for each meal. On the MyPlate site, you will also find examples of each food group.

In addition to planning your meals, be sure to take any prenatal supplements your doctor may have prescribed.

Of course, physical activity also plays a role in pregnancy weight gain. Getting regular exercise during pregnancy may help you achieve your recommended weight gain goal, but be sure to check with your doctor before embarking on any exercise program during pregnancy, especially if you have not been exercising regularly before pregnancy.

Pregnancy: No Time for Extreme Diets

Many people wonder if some of today’s popular diets, such as low-carbohydrate diets, are a good way of controlling weight gain during pregnancy. Nutrition experts advise that pregnancy and breastfeeding are not the time to embark on any type of extreme diet, particularly those that restrict entire food groups from the diet. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, talk to your doctor before starting any kind of new diet.

A Note About Food Safety

A discussion of healthful eating during pregnancy would be incomplete without a mention of food safety. While it is important to eat a variety of foods and get adequate nutrients, it is also important to avoid certain foods that could pose a risk to you or to your unborn baby.

Here are some of the foodborne illnesses that pose a particular risk to pregnant women:

  • ListeriaListeria poisoning during pregnancy may increase the risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth defects. Foods that may be contaminated include unpasteurized milk, deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses (such as feta, Brie, and blue cheeses).
  • Mercury and PCB contamination—Some types of fish, including shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish, may have higher levels of chemical pollutants that can be harmful to unborn babies and small children. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised to avoid these types of fish.
  • E. Coli 0157:H7—This bacterium may be found in raw and undercooked meat and unpasteurized milk. Be sure to cook all meats to appropriate temperatures and avoid cross-contamination by using separate cutting boards for raw and cooked foods.

RESOURCES:

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
http://www.acog.org/

ChooseMyPlate.gov
http://www.choosemyplate.gov/

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index_e.html/

Women's Health Canada
http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca/

References:

ChooseMyPlate.gov. United States Department of Agriculture. ChooseMyPlate website. Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/. Updated June 14, 2011. Accessed June 15, 2011.

Rooney BL, Schauberger CW. Excess pregnancy weight gain and long-term obesity: one decade later. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:245-252.

Thorsdottir I, Torfadottir JE, Birgisdottir BE, Geirsson RT. Weight gain in women of normal weight before pregnancy: complications in pregnancy or delivery and birth outcome. Obstet Gynecol . 2002;99:799-806.

1/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance: Asplund CA, Seehusen DA, Callahan TL, Olsen C. Percentage change in antenatal body mass index as a predictor of neonatal macrosomia. Ann Fam Med. 2008;6:550-554.

2/5/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php Cheng YW, Chung JH, Kurbisch-Block I, Inturrisi M, Shafer S, Caughey AB. Gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes mellitus: perinatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1015-1022.
Hillier TA, Pedula KL, Vesco KK, et al. Excess gestational weight gain: modifying fetal macrosomia risk associated with maternal glucose. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1007-1014.



Last reviewed November 2010 by Brian Randall, MD


Last updated Updated: 6/29/2011

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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