Pregnancy Diet
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Pregnancy Diet

When you are pregnant, it is important to eat a well-balanced, healthful diet. This includes getting the right amount of calories and key nutrients to support both you and your baby.

Calories

Since the amount of calories you need will vary depending on age, weight, and physical activity among other things, talk with your doctor about a calorie plan that is right for you.

Key Nutrients

Along with talking about the amount of calories and types of foods you need to consume to achieve a well-balanced, healthy diet during pregnancy, your doctor may also discuss the kinds of nutrients you will need. There are some key nutrients, like folic acid and iron, which deserve extra attention during pregnancy. Many women may also benefit from a vitamin supplement.

Folic Acid

Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant should consume 600 micrograms of folic acid (ie, folate) every day. This mineral is most important during the first several weeks of pregnancy—often before a woman even knows she is pregnant. Getting enough folic acid can help prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Taking this vitamin may also help prevent birth defects like cleft lip and congenital heart disease

You can meet this requirement by eating a variety of foods rich in folic acid. For extra insurance, you may also want to take a folic acid supplement before you become pregnant and through your first trimester. (If you are taking a prenatal vitamin that contains folate, you do not need a separate folic acid supplement.)

Foods rich in folic acid include:

  • Fortified breakfast cereal
  • Whole-wheat breads
  • Orange juice and citrus fruits
  • Green leafy vegetables (eg, spinach, broccoli, and romaine lettuce)
  • Legumes

Iron

Iron is a mineral that helps red blood cells transport oxygen around the body. The recommended amount of iron for pregnant women is 27 milligrams (mg). Not getting enough of this mineral can lead to iron-deficiency anemia and pregnancy complications.

Good sources of iron include:

  • Lean red meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Dried fruits
  • Fortified breakfast cereals

Eating vitamin C-rich foods along with iron-containing foods can help with iron absorption. On the other hand, drinking tea or coffee at the same time can inhibit iron absorption.

Because it can be difficult to get all the iron you need from food alone, it is often recommended that all pregnant women take a prenatal vitamin that contains the necessary iron amount. Talk to your physician about iron supplementation.

Calcium

During pregnancy you also need calcium. When you do not consume enough calcium, your body takes it from your bones, increasing your risk of osteoporosis later in life.

Good sources of calcium include:

  • Low-fat or nonfat dairy products (eg, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese)
  • Fish canned with bones
  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Fortified soy milk or rice milk
  • Fortified orange juice
  • Other calcium-fortified foods

If you do not eat dairy products or enough foods fortified with calcium, talk to your physician about calcium and vitamin D supplementation. (Vitamin D is necessary for the body to absorb and use the calcium.)

Additional Considerations

Vitamins

During pregnancy the body becomes extra efficient at absorbing the nutrients in food. If you are eating a variety of healthful foods every day, you may not need a supplement. But many women may benefit from taking a prenatal multivitamin. Some may need only an iron or folic acid supplement. Talk to your doctor about your eating and lifestyle habits to determine if you should take a vitamin supplement.

Alcohol

No safe amount of alcohol has been shown in pregnancy. Therefore, it is recommended that you abstain from drinking until after your pregnancy.

Caffeine

Most experts agree that having one or two cups of coffee or tea per day is fine during pregnancy. However some research has linked high intakes of caffeine (more than 300 mg per day) with greater difficulty to conceive and a higher rate of miscarriages. One cup of brewed coffee contains about 135 mg of caffeine, one shot of espresso contains about 35 mg, one brewed tea bag contains about 50 mg, and a 16-ounce serving of cola has about 50 mg. Talk to your doctor about how much caffeine you drink.

Seafood

Seafood is an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential for the proper brain development of the fetus. Therefore, it is recommended that pregnant women include seafood, particularly fatty fish such as salmon, as a regular part of their diet.

However, some seafood contains high amounts of mercury, a contaminant that can be harmful to the developing baby. Fish that should be avoided due to their high mercury content include: tilefish, king mackerel, swordfish, albacore tuna, and shark.

Good choices include salmon, sardines, catfish, canned light tuna, and shrimp. These are both high in omega-3 fatty acids and low in mercury.

Food Safety

To avoid the risk of foodborne illness, which could harm you and your developing baby, it is important to pay close attention to food safety during pregnancy. Here are some general guidelines:

  • Wash your hands before eating or preparing food.
  • When preparing food, avoid cross-contamination of raw meats or poultry with other foods.
  • Cook meat to recommended temperatures.
  • Thoroughly reheat leftovers.
  • Avoid luncheon meats and hot dogs unless reheated until steaming.
  • Drink only pasteurized juice and milk.
  • Avoid raw or soft cheeses.

Artificial Sweeteners

Most artificial sweeteners are considered safe for use in moderation during pregnancy, including: acesulfame K (Sunett), aspartame (NutraSweet or Equal), and sucralose (Splenda). But more research is needed on saccharin (Sweet’N Low) and stevia, these should, therefore, be avoided by pregnant women.

Fluids

Staying well-hydrated is important for the health of you and your baby, so try to drink at least 6-8 glasses of water a day. Other beverages, such as juice and soda, also contribute to hydration, but tend to be high in calories and low in nutritional value.

RESOURCES:

ChooseMyPlate.gov
http://www.choosemyplate.gov/

WomensHealth.gov
http://www.womenshealth.gov/

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Dietitians of Canada
http://www.dietitians.ca/

Healthy Pregnancy
http://www.healthypregnancy.gc.ca/

References:

The caffeine corner: products ranked by amount. Centers for Science in the Public Interest website. Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/nah/caffeine/caffeine_corner.htm. Accessed May 2, 2007.

Daily food plans for pregnancy and breastfeeding. ChooseMyPlate.gov website. United States Department of Agriculture, ChooseMyPlate.gov website. Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/mypyramidmoms/index.html. Updated June 4, 2011. Accessed June 21, 2011.

Dietary supplements: why take a prenatal supplement? ChooseMyPlate.gov website. United States Department of Agriculture, ChooseMyPlate.gov website. Available at: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/mypyramidmoms/dietary_supplements_prenatal.html. Updated June 4, 2011. Accessed June 21, 2011.

Healthy pregnancy. United States Department of Health and Human Services website. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/pregnancy/eat.cfm. Accessed May 1, 2007.

Nutrient data laboratory. United States Department of Agriculture website. Available at: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/. Accessed January 3, 2010.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102:1479-1490.

Using artificial sweetener during pregnancy. American Pregnancy Association. Available at: http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/artificialsweetner.htm. Accessed January 3, 2010.

Vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. March of Dimes website. Available at: http://www.marchofdimes.com/Pregnancy/nutrition_vitamins.html. Updated March 2009. Accessed June 23, 2011.

11/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance: Christian P, Stewart CP, LeClerq SC, et al. Antenatal and postnatal iron supplementation and childhood mortality in rural Nepal: a prospective follow-up in a randomized, controlled community trial. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170:1127-1136.
Christian P, Khatry SK, Katz J, et al. Effects of alternative maternal micronutrient supplements on low birth weight in rural Nepal: double blind randomised community trial. BMJ. 2003;326(7389):571.



Last reviewed March 2011 by Maria Adams, MS, MPH, RD


Last updated Updated: 6/23/2011

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.


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