Low-Oxalate Diet
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Low-Oxalate Diet

What Are Oxalates?

Oxalates are naturally-occurring substances found in plants, animals, and humans. The kidneys excrete oxalates into the urine.

Why Should I Follow a Low-Oxalate Diet?

Eating a diet low in oxalates can reduce your risk of developing kidney stones . Kidney stones sometimes form when oxalates and calcium bind together. Decreasing the amount of oxalates that are present in the urine lowers this risk.

Low-Oxalate Basics

A low-oxalate diet usually limits oxalate intake to about 50 milligrams (mg) per day. Because oxalates are found in many different foods, it’s important to become familiar with which foods are fine to eat in moderation and which foods should be avoided.

Eating Guide for a Low-Oxalate Diet

The below chart categorizes by food group and the amount of oxalates per serving. Serving sizes are equivalent to 3.5 ounces (100 grams), unless otherwise specified.

Food CategoryFoods Recommended (less than 2 mg oxalate/serving) Foods to Limit (2-10 mg oxalate/serving) Foods to Avoid (more than 10 mg oxalate/serving)

Grains

  • Barley
  • Cheerios
  • Chicken noodle soup
  • Corn cereals
  • Egg noodles
  • English muffins
  • Graham crackers
  • Macaroni
  • Pasta
  • Rice cereals
  • White rice
  • Wild rice
  • Bagels
  • Brown rice
  • Cinnamon Pop-Tarts
  • Cornmeal
  • Corn starch
  • Corn tortilla
  • Fig cookies
  • Oatmeal
  • Ravioli
  • Spaghetti with marinara sauce
  • White bread
  • Amaranth
  • Buckwheat
  • Bran cereal
  • Grits
  • Pretzels
  • Rye crispbread
  • Taro
  • Wheat bran
  • Wheat germ
  • Whole wheat bread
  • Whole wheat flour

Vegetables

  • Asparagus
  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Chives
  • Cucumber
  • Endive
  • Kohlarbi
  • Mushrooms
  • Peas
  • Radishes
  • Water chestnuts
  • Artichoke
  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Carrots (canned)
  • Corn
  • Escarole
  • Fennel
  • Lettuce
  • Lima beans
  • Mustard greens
  • Olives (black)
  • Onions
  • Peas (canned)
  • Parsnips
  • Turnips
  • Watercress
  • Beet roots and greens
  • Carrots
  • Celery
  • Chicory
  • Chili peppers
  • Collards
  • Dandelion greens
  • Eggplant
  • Escarole
  • Green bell peppers
  • Kale
  • Leeks
  • Okra
  • Olives (green)
  • Pokeweed
  • Potatoes (fried, boiled, or baked)
  • Rutabagas
  • Spinach
  • Summer squash
  • Sweet potato
  • Swiss chard
  • Tomatoes
  • Vegetable soup
  • Zucchini

Fruits

  • Apples (red)
  • Avocados
  • Grapefruit
  • Grapes
  • Huckleberries
  • Kumquat
  • Lychee
  • Mangoes
  • Melons
  • Nectarines
  • Papaya
  • Passion fruit
  • Canned peaches
  • Canned pears
  • Green and yellow plums
  • Raisins (¼ cup)
  • Apples (Granny Smith)
  • Applesauce
  • Apricots
  • Bananas
  • Cherries
  • Coconut
  • Cranberries
  • Mandarin orange
  • Orange
  • Peaches (fresh)
  • Pears (fresh)
  • Pineapples
  • Plums
  • Prunes
  • Strawberries (fresh)
  • Blackberries
  • Blueberries
  • Currants
  • Dewberries
  • Elderberries
  • Figs
  • Fruit cocktail
  • Gooseberries
  • Grapes (Concord)
  • Kiwis
  • Lemon peel
  • Lime peel
  • Orange peel
  • Raspberries
  • Rhubarb
  • Star fruit
  • Tamarillo
  • Tangerines

Milk

  • Cheese
  • Buttermilk
  • Milk
  • Yogurt
  • Chocolate milk
  • Soy milk
  • Soy cheese
  • Soy yogurt

Meat and Beans

  • Bacon
  • Beef
  • Corned beef
  • Fish (except sardines)
  • Ham
  • Lamb
  • Lean meats
  • Pork
  • Poultry
  • Shellfish
  • Flaxseed
  • Liver
  • Sardines
  • Sunflower seeds
  • Beans (baked, green, dried, kidney, refried)
  • Lentils
  • Nuts
  • Nut butters
  • Sesame seeds
  • Soy burgers
  • Soy nuts
  • Tahini
  • Tempeh
  • Textured vegetable protein

Oils

  • Avocados
  • Margarine
  • Mayonnaise
  • Salad dressing
  • Vegetable oil
  • Flaxseed
  • Sunflower seeds
  • Nuts (peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts, pecans, pistachios)
  • Nut butters
  • Sesame seeds
  • Soy nuts
  • Tahini

Beverages

  • Apple cider
  • Apple juice
  • Apricot nectar
  • Bottled beer
  • Buttermilk
  • Cherry juice
  • Cola
  • Grapefruit juice
  • Green tea
  • Herbal teas
  • Lemonade
  • Lemon juice
  • Limeade
  • Lime juice
  • Milk
  • Oolong tea
  • Pineapple juice
  • Wine
  • Black currant tea
  • Carrot juice
  • Coffee (brewed)
  • Cranberry juice
  • Draft beer
  • Grape juice
  • Guinness draft beer
  • Mate tea
  • Orange juice
  • Rosehip tea
  • Tomato juice
  • Dark beer
  • Black tea
  • Chocolate milk
  • Cocoa
  • Instant coffee
  • Juice made from high oxalate fruits
  • Ovaltine
  • Soy drinks

Other

  • Basil
  • Butter
  • Cinnamon
  • Corn syrup
  • Dijon mustard
  • Dill
  • Gelatin (unflavored)
  • Hard candy
  • Honey
  • Imitation vanilla extract
  • Jell-O
  • Jam made from low oxalate fruits
  • Ketchup (1 tablespoon)
  • Maple syrup
  • Nutmeg
  • Oregano
  • Peppermint
  • Sage
  • Sugar
  • Vinegar
  • White pepper
  • Ginger
  • Malt
  • Potato chips (less than 3.5 ounces)
  • Sponge cake
  • Strawberry jam
  • Thyme
  • Black pepper (more than 1 teaspoon)
  • Chocolate
  • Marmalade
  • Parsley
  • Soy sauce

Suggestions

  • Become familiar with serving sizes. Be aware of how many grams of oxalates you are eating.
  • Consider meeting with a registered dietitian to develop an eating plan.
  • Additional tips on preventing kidney stones:
    • Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids every day.
    • Do not take large doses of vitamin C supplements (limit to less than 1,000 mg/day).
    • Keep protein intake below 80 grams/day.
    • Eat a low salt diet (less than 2,000 mg/day).

RESOURCES:

American Dietetic Association
http://www.eatright.org

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse
http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/

The Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation
http://www.ohf.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Dietitians of Canada
http://www.dietitians.ca

The Kidney Foundation of Canada
http://www.kidney.ca

References:

Finkielstein VA, Goldfarb DS. Strategies for preventing calcium oxalate stones. CMAJ. 2006;174:1407-1409.

Limited oxalate diet. Ohio State University Medical Center website. Available at: http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/pdfs/PatientEd/Materials/PDFDocs/nut-diet/nut-other/limit.pdf. Accessed April 18, 2007.

Low oxalate diet. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center website. Available at: http://patienteducation.upmc.com/Pdf/LowOxalateDiet.pdf. Accessed April 18, 2007.

The Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation website. Available at: http://www.ohf.org . Accessed April 19, 2007.



Last reviewed May 2008 by Dianne Scheinberg, MS, RD, LDN

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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