Hemifacial Spasm
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Hemifacial Spasm

En Español (Spanish Version)

Definition

Hemifacial spasm is a neuromuscular disorder that causes frequent involuntary contractions to occur in the muscles on one side of the face.

Causes

Hemifacial spasm is believed to be due in part to compression of the facial nerve where it meets the brainstem. The compression can be cause by:

  • A blood vessel pressing on the facial nerve (most frequent cause)
  • Tumor
  • Facial nerve injury
  • Bony or other abnormalities that compress the nerve

Facial Nerve Innervation

si55551125_96472_1_facial nerve innervation.jpg

© 2008 Nucleus Medical Art, Inc.

Risk Factors

The following factor increases your chance of developing hemifacial spasm:

Symptoms

  • Intermittent twitching of the eyelid muscle
  • Forced closure of the eye
  • Spasms of the muscles of the lower face
  • Mouth pulled to one side
  • Continuous spasms involving all the muscles on one side of the face

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. Tests may include the following:

Treatment

Hemifacial spasm is usually a chronic condition. Remission of symptoms, although possible, has only been noted to occur in less than 10% of patients.

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:

Medication

Treatment with carbamazepine is often used initially, with improvement in symptoms in up to half of patients who are treated.

According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), patients of Asian ancestry who have a certain gene, called HLA-B*1502, and take carbamazepine are at risk for dangerous or even fatal skin reactions. If you are of Asian descent, the FDA recommends that you get tested for this gene before taking carbamazepine. If you have been taking this medication for a few months with no skin reactions, then you are at low risk of developing these reactions. Talk to your doctor before stopping this medication. *

Gabapentin and baclofen may also be beneficial for treating hemifacial spasm in some patients.

Botulinum Toxin Injections

Injecting botulinum toxin (ie, Botox) into the affected muscles can stop eyelid spasm for several months. However, these injections must be repeated, usually several times a year.

Surgery

Microvascular decompression surgery, which repositions the blood vessel away from the nerve, is successful in cases of hemifacial spasm in which the cause is suspected to be a blood vessel compressing the facial nerve.

Prevention

There is no known way to prevent hemifacial spasm.

RESOURCES:

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

National Organization for Rare Disorders
http://www.rarediseases.org/

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Movement Disorder Group
http://www.cmdg.org

Hemifacial Spasm Association
http://www.hfs-assn.org/

References:

Alexander GE, Moses H. Carbamazepine for hemifacial spasm. Neurology. 1982;32:286-287.

Defazio G, Martino D, Aniello MS, et al. Influence of age on the association between primary hemifacial spasm and arterial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:979-981.

Digre K, Corbett JJ. Hemifacial spasm: differential diagnosis, mechanism, and treatment. Adv Neurol. 1988;49:151-176.

Ehni G, Woltman HW. Hemifacial spasm. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1945;53:205-211.

Hemifacial spasm. Chicago Institute of Neurosurgery and Neuroresearch website. Available at: http://www.cinn.org/other/hemifacial-spasm.html . Accessed February 28, 2007.

Hemifacial spasm. MedLink Neurology website. Available at: http://www.medlink.com . Accessed 4/2/2008.

Hemifacial spasm information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/hemifacial_spasm/hemifacial_spasm.htm . Accessed February 28, 2007.

*12/20/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : 2007 safety alerts for drugs, biologics, medical devices, and dietary supplements: Carbamazepine (marketed as Carbatrol, Equetro, Tegretol and generics). Medwatch. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2007/safety07.htm#carbamazepine .



Last reviewed March 2008 by J. Thomas Megerian, MD, PhD, FAAP

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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