Decreasing Your Salt Intake
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Decreasing Your Salt Intake

Here's Why:

Sodium intake may be a primary factor in the development of high blood pressure (hypertension), which is a major risk factor for heart attacks and strokes. Hypertension (a “systolic” blood pressure above 140 and/or a “diastolic” pressure above 90) will develop in many people who live into their 80s, and in many people it occurs long before this age.

There is a good percentage of the general public who can be described as "salt sensitive." This means that their blood pressures are likely to increase when they eat a high-sodium diet, and conversely, their blood pressures may be lowered by limiting dietary sodium.

Salt sensitivity is difficult to accurately diagnose. Therefore, appropriate sodium recommendations are a subject of debate among nutrition experts. Many believe that all people should limit their sodium intakes to either treat or prevent hypertension, regardless of their present blood pressure level. The latest United States dietary guidelines (2010) suggest that ideally no more than 2,300 mg/day of sodium be consumed. People with high blood pressure, people older than 50 years, African Americans, people with diabetes, and people with kidney disease should limit sodium intake to 1,500 mg/day.

A major study in this area is DASH—Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. This study found that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and saturated fat—now called the DASH diet—helped lower blood pressure.

The second phase of the study found further reductions in blood pressure when the DASH diet was combined with a sodium intake of no more than 2,400 mg/day. The combination of DASH diet and a sodium intake of no more than 1,600 mg/day was as effective in controlling blood pressure as medication involving a single antihypertensive drug. For some people with mild hypertension, diet alone may be an effective means of blood pressure control when the diet includes adequate calcium and potassium (DASH) along with sodium restriction.

Here's How:

Sodium is found in many foods. Some are obvious, but others may surprise you.

Major Food Sources

Table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is the major source of dietary sodium; about 1/3 to ½ of the sodium we consume is added during cooking or at the table.

Fast foods and commercially processed foods—canned, frozen, instant—also add a significant amount of sodium to the typical American diet. These include:

  • Beef broth
  • Ketchup
  • Commercial soups
  • French fries
  • Frozen meals
  • Gravies
  • Olives
  • Pickles
  • Potato chips
  • Salted snack foods
  • Sandwich meats, especially smoked meat or fish
  • Sauces
  • Sauerkraut
  • Tomato-based products

Sodium occurs naturally in:

  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Meats
  • Milk products
  • Poultry
  • Shellfish
  • Soft water

Other sources of sodium in the diet:

  • Baking powder
  • Baking soda
  • Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
  • Sodium alginate
  • Sodium citrate
  • Sodium nitrate and nitrate
  • Sodium propionate
  • Sodium sulfite
  • Soy sauce

Reading Food Labels

All food products contain a Nutrition Facts label, which states a food's sodium content. The following terms are also used on food packaging:

Food label termMeaning
Sodium freeLess than 5 mg/serving
Very low sodium35 mg or less/serving
Low sodium145 mg or less/serving
Reduced sodium75% reduction in sodium content from original product
Unsalted, no salt added, without added saltProcessed without salt when salt normally would be used in processing

Tips for Lowering Your Sodium Intake

  • Read the nutrition label to find out how much sodium is in the foods you are purchasing.
  • Gradually cut down on the amount of salt you use. Your taste buds will adjust to less salt.
  • Taste your food before you salt it; it may not need more salt.
  • Substitute flavorful ingredients for salt in cooking, such as garlic, oregano, lemon or lime juice, or other herbs, spices, and seasonings.
  • Opt for fresh foods instead of processed foods. For example, select fresh or plain frozen vegetables and meats instead of those canned with salt.
  • Look for low sodium, reduced sodium, or no salt added versions of such foods as:
    • Canned vegetables
    • Vegetable juices
    • Dried soup mixes
    • Bouillon
    • Condiments (ketchup, soy sauce)
    • Snack foods (chips, nuts, pretzels)
    • Crackers
    • Bakery products
    • Canned soups
    • Butter and margarine
    • Cheeses
    • Canned tuna
    • Processed meats
  • Cook and eat at home! Adjust your recipes to gradually cut down on the amount of salt you use. If some of the ingredients already contain salt, such as canned soup, canned vegetables, or cheese, you do not need to add more salt.
  • Cook rice, pasta, and hot cereals without salt or with less salt than the package calls for (try 1/8 teaspoon for two servings). Flavored rice, pasta, and cereal mixes generally already contain added salt.
  • When dining out, order a low-salt meal or ask the chef not to add salt to your meal.
  • Limit your use of condiments, such as soy sauce, dill pickles, salad dressings, and packaged sauces.

RESOURCES:

American Heart Association
http://www.americanheart.org/

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Council on Food and Nutrition
http://www.ccfn.ca/

Dietitians of Canada
http://www.dietitians.ca/

References:

American Heart Association. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org. Accessed May 3, 2009.

American Heart Association. The American Dietetic Association's Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. New York, NY: Chronimed Publishing; 1998.

Duyff RL. The American Dietetic Association's Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2006.

United States Department of Agriculture and United States Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition, Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, December 2010.



Last reviewed April 2011 by Brian Randall, MD


Last updated Updated:4/12/2011

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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