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Diabetes Insipidus
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Diabetes Insipidus

Pronounced: diabetes -in-' sip-d-s

En Español (Spanish Version)

Definition

There are two forms of diabetes insipidus (DI):

Central diabetes insipidus (Central DI)—caused by inadequate antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)—due to renal cells in the kidneys not responding to ADH.

Causes

ADH, also called vasopressin, controls the amount of water reabsorbed by the renal cells in the kidneys. ADH is made in the hypothalamus of the brain, while the pituitary gland , at the base of the brain, stores and releases ADH.

Pituitary Gland

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  • Central DI (up to 50% of cases, the cause is unknown) may be caused by:
    • A lack of ADH made in the brain due to a genetic defect
    • Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary glands by surgery, infection, tumor, or head injury
    • Sickle cell disease
  • NDI may be caused by:
    • Renal cells in the kidneys not being able to conserve water, which may be due to a genetic defect in some cases
    • Kidney diseases (such as polycystic kidney disease )
    • Medications (such as lithium, amphotericin B, or demeclocycline)—the most common cause of diabetes insipidus

Risk Factors

A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease of condition.

The following factors increase your chance of developing diabetes insipidus. If you have any of these risk factors, tell your doctor:

  • Damage to the hypothalamus due to surgery, infection, tumor, or head injury
  • Polycystic kidney disease or another kidney disease that may affect the filtration process
  • Use of certain medications such as lithium, amphotericin B, or demeclocycline
  • High blood levels of calcium
  • Low blood levels of potassium

Symptoms

If you experience any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to diabetes insipidus. These symptoms may be caused by other health conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, which is an entirely different condition. If you experience any one of them, see your doctor.

  • Extreme thirst with preference for cold drinks in central DI
  • Muscle weakness
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Blurred vision
  • Low blood pressure
  • Rapid pulse
  • Frequent urination, especially during the night (nocturia)
  • Dehydration

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam.

Tests may include the following:

  • Blood tests
    • Electrolytes
    • ADH levels
    • Blood sugar
  • Urinalysis
    • Urine specific gravity and/or osmolality (measures how concentrated or dilute the urine is)
  • Water deprivation test
    • Only done under doctor supervision
    • Urine output is measured for a 24-hour period
    • Diabetes insipidus can cause as much as 4-10 liters of urine to be excreted per day
    • Central DI—urine output is suppressed by a dose of vasopressin/ADH
    • NDI—urine output is not suppressed by a dose of vasopressin/ADH
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head, if CDI is suspected.

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:

Central DI

  • A synthetic form of ADH is used. This drug could be taken by mouth, inhaled through the nose, or by injection.
  • In milder forms of central DI, a diuretic “water pill” or an antidiabetic medication could be used to boost the ADH effect on the renal cells in the kidney.

NDI

  • A diuretic “water pill” could be used.
  • If lithium is causing the problem, another diuretic, amiloride, could be used.

In both CDI and NDI, symptoms can often be reduced by decreasing the amount of sodium in the diet and by using medications called thiazide diuretics. Although diuretics typically increase urinary output, they conserve water loss and decrease urine output in people with diabetes insipidus.

Prevention

Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon condition. Although there are no known ways to prevent diabetes insipidus, it is wise to seek medical attention promptly if you have symptoms of excessive urination and thirst.

RESOURCES:

Diabetes Insipidus Foundation
http://www.diabetesinsipidus.org

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation
http://www.ndif.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Diabetes Association
http://www.diabetes.ca

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index_e.html

References:

Diabetes insipidus. DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.dynamicmedical.com/dynamed.nsf?opendatabase . Accessed September 20, 2005.

Diabetes insipidus. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia website. Available at:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000377.htm . Accessed September 18, 2005.

Garofeanu CG, Weir M, Rosas-Arellano MP, et al. Causes of reversible nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis . 2005;45:626-37.

Rivkees SA, Dunbar N, Willson TA: The management of central diabetes insipidus in infancy: desmopressin, low renal solue load formula, thazide diuretics. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab . 2007;20:459-69.

The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy . 15th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories; 1987.

Majzoub JA, Srivatsa A: Diabetes insipidus: clinical and basic aspects. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2006;Suppl 1: 60-5.

Sands JM, Bichet DG. Nephogenic diabetes insipidus. Annals Int Med . 2006;144:186-194.

Toumba M, Stanhope R. Morbidity and mortality associated with vasopressin analogue treatment. Pediatr Endocrinol Metab . 2006;19:197-201.



Last reviewed January 2008 by David Juan, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.


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