Parotitis
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Parotitis

(Sialadenitis; Salivary Gland Infection)

Pronounced: PEAR-uh-TIE-tiss

En Español (Spanish Version)

Definition

Parotitis causes swelling in one or both of the parotid glands. These are two large salivary glands that sit inside each cheek over the jaw in front of each ear. Usually, the problem goes away by itself, but some cases require treatment. See your doctor if you have swelling or other symptoms in this part of your face.

Parotid Gland

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Causes

A variety of factors can lead to an inflamed parotid gland. They include:

  • Viral infection
    • Mumps is the main virus causing parotitis, but this virus is rare today because of vaccines .
    • AIDS can cause swelling and enlarged parotid glands
  • A blockage may block saliva flow and lead to a bacterial infection; causes include:
    • Salivary stone in the parotid gland
    • Mucus plug in a salivary duct
    • Tumor (usually benign)
  • Sjogren’s syndrome —an autoimmune disease
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Malnutrition
  • Radiation treatment of head and neck cancer can lead to parotid gland inflammation
  • Other conditions can cause the parotid glands to become enlarged, but not infected, including:

Risk Factors

A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.

Discuss these risk factors with your doctor:

  • Lifestyle:
    • Poor oral hygiene
    • Not vaccinated against mumps
  • Age: older than age 65
  • Medical conditions:
    • HIV-positive or AIDS
    • Sjogren’s syndrome
    • Diabetes
    • Malnutrition
    • Alcoholism
    • Bulimia

Symptoms

If you have any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to parotitis. These symptoms may be caused by other health conditions. To determine the cause of your symptoms, see your doctor.

  • Swelling in front of your ears, below your jaw, or on the floor of your mouth
  • Dry mouth
  • Strange or foul taste in your mouth
  • Pus draining into the mouth
  • Mouth or facial pain, especially when you are eating or opening your mouth
  • Fever, chills, and other signs of infection

If parotitis recurs, it can cause severe swelling into the neck and can destroy the salivary glands.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. This may be enough to make a diagnosis. Tests may include:

  • Removing fluid from the gland and checking it for signs of infection
  • X-rays —a test that uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the body; used to see salivary stones
  • Ultrasound —a test that uses sound waves to take pictures of the structures inside the body
  • CT scan —a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the body

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:

Good Oral Hygiene

Flossing and thorough tooth brushing at least twice a day may help with healing. Warm salt water rinses can help keep the mouth moist. It may also help if you quit smoking.

Medications

  • Antibiotics—to control bacterial infections only; not effective for viral infections
  • Medications—to treat underlying conditions, such as Sjogren’s syndrome or AIDS
  • Anti-inflammatories—to manage swelling and pain

Blockage Removal

Your doctor may need to remove a stone, tumor, or other blockage. Increasing saliva flow may be all that's needed to remove a mucus plug.

Prevention

To help reduce your chances of getting parotitis, take the following steps:

  • Get treatment for infections.
  • Get regular dental care.
  • Drink plenty of fluids.
  • Suck on sugarless candy or chew sugarless gum to increase the flow of saliva.

RESOURCES:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov

National Library of Medicine
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

BC Health Guide
http://www.bchealthguide.org/

Canadian Health Network
http://www.canadian-health-network.ca/

References:

Chitre VV, Premchandra DJ. Review: recurrent parotitis. Arch Dis Child . 1997;77:359-363. Available at: http://adc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/77/4/359 .

Salivary gland infections. University of Maryland Medical Center website. Available at: http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/001041.htm . Accessed September 26, 2005.

Salivary gland infections. US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, Medline Plus website. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001041.htm . Accessed September 26, 2005.



Last reviewed January 2008 by Daus Mahnke, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.


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