DefinitionHypothermia is an abnormally low body temperature. It is a dangerous condition that requires immediate medical attention.
CausesHypothermia occurs when your body loses more heat than it can produce. It is usually the result of being exposed to very cold temperatures. But it can also occur in other circumstances, such as:
- Being in less cold temperatures with a wind chill
- Wearing wet clothes
- Being in a position where you cannot move
- Being in cold water
- Certain medical conditions
Risk FactorsPeople who may have a higher risk of hypothermia include:
- Babies and young children
- Older adults
- Adults under the influence of alcohol or drugs
- People who are mentally ill
- People who spend long periods of time outdoors
SymptomsSymptoms of hypothermia usually happen gradually. Over time, mental and physical abilities are lessened. The main symptoms of hypothermia are:
- Shivering—this increases the muscle activity in your body as your body tries to keep warm
- Memory loss
- Slurred speech
- Hallucinations—sensing things that are not real
- Slowed breathing
- Cold, pale skin
|In hypothermia, the heartbeat slows. If left untreated, the heart will stop beating.|
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DiagnosisNormal body temperature is 98.6˚F (37˚C). Hypothermia is diagnosed when body temperature reaches 95˚F (35˚C) or lower. Only a special rectal thermometer that reads low temperatures can confirm that someone has this condition.
TreatmentIt is important to act quickly if you suspect that you or someone else has hypothermia:
- Get to a warm, sheltered area.
- Remove any wet clothing.
- Use an electric blanket to warm the core of the body first—chest, neck, head, and groin.
- If no electric blanket is available, use skin-to-skin contact under loose blankets or towels.
- Give warm beverages to drink. Do not give alcoholic beverages.
- Get medical attention as soon as possible.
PreventionIf you are planning to spend time outside, take the following precautions:
- Be aware of the weather.
- Wear the right clothing:
- Hat, scarf, and mittens
- Several layers of loose-fitting clothing
- Water-resistant coat and shoes
- Wind-resistant outer layer
- Go inside when you are shivering or if you are wet.
- Do not drink alcohol.
- Eat well-balanced meals and stay hydrated.
Hypothermia Prevention, Recognition, and Treatment
National Prevention Information Network
Canadian Red Cross
Hypothermia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Published August 11, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hypothermia: a cold weather hazard. National Institute on Aging website. Available at: http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/hypothermia-cold-weather-hazard. Updated September 12, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Winter weather FAQs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/winter/faq.asp. Updated November 26, 2013. Accessed September 30, 2014.
- Reviewer: Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/30/2014
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