DefinitionA person with a passive-aggressive behavior pattern may appear to comply or act appropriately, but actually behaves negatively and passively resists. In the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, passive-aggressiveness is not officially characterized as a personality disorder. Instead, passive-aggressiveness is labeled as an area that needs further study.
CausesThe cause of passive-aggressiveness is unknown. There may be environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the development of this behavior pattern.
|This part of the brain is believed to control our ability to act in a way that is socially appropriate. Biological changes to this area may contribute to behavior patterns.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
Risk FactorsFactors that may increase your chance of passive-aggressive behavior include:
- Childhood abuse or neglect
- Harsh punishment
SymptomsPassive-aggressive behavior includes:
- Contradictory and inconsistent behavior—A person with this behavior pattern may appear enthusiastic to carry out others’ requests, but purposely performs in a manner that is not useful and sometimes even damaging.
- Intentional avoidance of responsibility—Some behaviors that may be used to avoid responsibility include:
- Procrastination—to delay or postpone needlessly and intentionally
- Deliberate inefficiency—purposefully performing in an incompetent manner
- Feelings of resentment toward others
- Argumentative, sulky, and hostile, especially toward authority figures
- Easily offended
- Resentful of useful suggestions from others
- Blames others
- Chronically impatient
- Unexpressed anger or hostility
More from Beliefnet
A randomized trial found that fecal microbiota transplantation had a higher rate of remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis than those who recieved placebo. Fecal transplantation is believed to help the intestine develop a healthy balance of bacteria in the gut which can help the intestine recover and function more effectively.
Exercise Associated with Healthy Baby Weight
Mindful Meditation May Reduce Symptoms and Complications of Insomnia
Chewing Gum After Surgery May Improve Digestive Tract Recovery