Hydronephrosis a build-up of urine in the kidneys. The kidneys swell from the excess urine which cannot drain into the bladder. The condition may affect one or both kidneys. Hydronephrosis is not a disease, but a symptom of a problem with the urinary system.
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder, and Kidney Stone
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Hydronephrosis is caused by one of two problems in the urinary system:

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of hydronephrosis include:
  • Defect in the urinary system that is present at birth
  • Scarring of the ureters, the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder
  • Cancers in the pelvic area (bladder, cervix, colon, or prostate)
  • Persistent kidney or urinary tract infections
  • Blood-clotting disorders
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Neurogenic bladder
  • Injury to structures in the urinary system, such as from surgery or trauma
  • Enlarged uterus during pregnancy


Hydronephrosis may or may not cause any symptoms.If symptoms occur, they may include:
  • Pain in the back, waist, lower abdomen, or groin
  • Persistent pain with urination or urinary frequency from urinary tract infections
  • Increased urge to urinate or urinary incontinence
  • Incomplete urination
  • Fever
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Unexplained itching

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