(Acne Conglobata; Acne Inversa [AI]; Apocrine Acne; Apocrinitis; Fox-Den Disease; HS; Hydradenitis Suppurativa; Pyodermia Significa Fistulans; Velpeau's Disease; Verneuil's Disease)
DefinitionHidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory condition of the hair follicle. Recurrent, inflamed nodules and cysts form in the armpits and groin. These may also be found under the breasts, and around the nipples and anus. Less commonly other areas of the body can be affected.
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CausesThe hair follicle becomes blocked causing inflammation of the sweat glands. The blockage may lead to absesses, infection, or scarring.
Risk FactorsHS is more common in women than in men. Other factors that increase your chances of getting HS include:
SymptomsHS may cause:
- Burning, itching, or painful lumps in the armpits, groin, under the breasts, around the nipples or anus, and other involved areas
- Pus leaking from openings in the lumps
- Excessive sweating
DiagnosisYou will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. In most cases, the doctor will be able to make a diagnosis by looking at the nodules.
TreatmentTalk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options may include one or more of the following:
Home Care and Lifestyle ChangesYou may be able to improve the condition by taking these steps:
- Use warm compresses to relieve discomfort and promote abscess drainage.
- Avoid shaving if your skin becomes irritated.
- Wear loose-fitting, nonsynthetic clothing.
- Use antibacterial soap.
- Try to avoid heat and humidity.
MedicationsYour doctor may prescribe one or more medications depending on the severity of your HS.AntibioticsYour doctor may recommend oral or topical antibiotics.Corticosteroids and Other ImmunosuppresantsCorticosteroids may help improve symptoms. These can be taken by mouth, applied to the skin, or injected into the area.Other medications called biologics, which decrease the bodies immune response, may be used in severe cases. These medications have many risks, so your doctor will carefully weigh the risks and benefits of using these.Other MedicationsHormonal medications, such as oral contraceptives can be used in some cases. At other times, medications called retinoids may be used.
SurgerySmall lesions can be treated in the doctor's office. The sores may be cut open and allowed to drain. If your condition is severe, then a wide area may need to be removed. In these cases, a skin graft may be needed. Other procedure options include:
- Laser surgery—uses lasers to remove lesions
- Cryosurgery—uses cold to freeze lesions
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