Primary Polycythemia

(Polycythemia Vera [PCV]; Polycythemia Rubra Vera [PRV]; Erythremia)


Polycythemia is a condition that occurs when the bone marrow produces an abnormal and excessive amount of red blood cells and platelets in the blood. The abnormal increase of red blood cells in the blood can cause the blood to thicken and clot.There are several forms of polycythemia—primary polycythemia, secondary polycythemia, and stress polycythemia. Each form has its own set of causes and risk factors.
Location of Active Bone Marrow in an Adult
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Nearly all cases of primary polycythemia are believed to be caused by a mutation in the janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2).

Risk Factors

Primary polycythemia is more common in men and people over the age of 40 years of age. It is also more common in people who are Caucasian or those of Ashkenazi Jewish descent.


The symptoms of primary polycythemia occur gradually and vary from person to person. Some people show no signs of the condition. Symptoms may include:
  • Abnormal and heavy bleeding due to a cut or a nosebleed
  • Intense and frequent bone pain and/or muscle pain
  • Headaches, lightheadedness, or gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Vision problems
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Difficulty or labored breathing
  • The color of the skin appears reddish
  • Fatigue
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Intense itching after a warm or hot bath, shower, or any activity that requires soaking your skin in warm or hot water


You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a doctor called a hematologist who specializes in blood diseases and disorders. The hematologist will perform a tests.Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

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