Aseptic Necrosis of the Hip
(Osteonecrosis; Avascular Necrosis; Ischemic Necrosis; Osteochondritis Dissecans)
DefinitionAseptic necrosis of the hip is the death of bone tissue in the head of the femur (thigh bone) due to an inadequate blood supply. There is a specific type of aseptic necrosis of the hip called Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. It affects the growth plate at the upper end of the femur in children. It most commonly affects boys aged 5-10 years old.
|The Hip Joint|
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CausesAseptic necrosis of the hip is caused by any event or condition that damages the arteries that feed the head of the femur . The most common events are fractures in the upper femur and dislocations of the hip, especially developmental dysplasia of the hip. Other causes reduce the blood supply by closing off or compressing the blood vessels.
Risk FactorsFactors that increase your chance of developing aseptic necrosis of the hip include:
- Femoral neck fractures
- Hip trauma
- Dislocation of the hip
- Radiation therapy
- Prolonged or repeated use of cortisone-like drugs
- Decompression sickness
- Sickle cell disease
- Gaucher disease
- Cushing disease
- Excessive alcohol use
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)—especially if SLE is being treated with corticosteroids
- Chronic renal failure or renal transplantation
- HIV infection
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