Reducing Your Risk of Heart Disease When You Have Diabetes
Diabetes and Heart Disease RiskDiabetes can cause damage to the heart and blood vessels. If you have diabetes, managing your blood glucose levels, along with reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, are important steps in treating diabetes.
DiabetesMillions of Americans are affected by diabetes , a serious, chronic condition with high blood glucose levels associated with numerous health complications, including cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is easy to diagnose by testing blood glucose levels. Although there is no cure, early detection, appropriate treatment, education, and a healthy lifestyle can help you avoid or delay diabetes-related complications.
Cardiovascular DiseaseCVD is the leading cause of death in the United States and the is primary reason for heart attacks and strokes . It is also a common complication associated with diabetes. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), people with diabetes are 2-4 times more likely to have CVD than the general population. Diabetes significantly increases the risk of heart attack or stroke compared to the general population.
Controlling Risk Factors: Getting Appropriate TreatmentThe most common cardiovascular disease is called coronary artery disease (CAD). It occurs when there is a gradual build-up of plaque in blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle. Over time, the plaque narrows or blocks the branching arteries, limiting blood supply to the heart. Controlling risk factors that lead to CAD can decrease your risk of having a heart attack.
Blood GlucoseChronic high blood glucose levels can damage your heart and blood vessels, leading to one of many CVDs. Therefore, it is important to regularly monitor and control your blood glucose levels.
CholesterolCholesterol is a substance that is an important component of cell membranes as well as a building block necessary in the production of many hormones. Our bodies make what we need, but certain foods in your diet can lead to higher than normal levels of cholesterol. These abnormally high levels of cholesterol contribute to formation of fatty deposits within the walls of blood vessels. This build up can lead to CAD.Cholesterol is transported through the bloodstream by high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). LDL is frequently called “bad cholesterol” as it promotes accumulation of cholesterol in the walls of your arteries. Diabetes may make the LDL particles more likely to stick to and damage artery walls. HDL cholesterol is sometimes referred to as "good" cholesterol. It helps clear excess cholesterol from your body. Its level is raised mostly by regular exercise.Besides making appropriate lifestyle changes, the ADA also recommends using medications called statins to lower cholesterol levels in people with diabetes, with CVD, or is at risk of developing CVD, even if cholesterol levels are not high. Adults who have diabetes and high cholesterol levels, but without CVD, may also need to take statins.
Blood PressureNarrow blood vessels are one reason for hypertension . Because hypertension can make some of the complications of diabetes worse, the ADA recommends aggressive treatment of hypertension for people with diabetes. The ADA recommends a target blood pressure below 140/80 mm Hg for people with diabetes. In certain populations, the target number may be 130/80 mm Hg. Hypertension in people with diabetes is treated with:
- Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)
- Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)
- Calcium channel blockers
- Thiazide-like diuretics
Work With Your Health Care TeamIt is likely you will have a health care team that is made up of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and other health professionals. It is important to maintain contact with your medical team and be an active participant in your care. Talk to your team about symptoms, treatments, or side effects that you are having difficulty with. Other treatments options may be available to help you better manage your diabetes and/or CVD.