Tourette Syndrome—Child

(TS—Child)

Definition

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a type of tic disorder. Tics are sudden muscle movements or vocal sounds that can range from mild to severe. TS, a neurological condition, is usually diagnosed during childhood.

Causes

TS may be a genetic condition, passed from parents to children. This is still being studied. TS may also be linked to problems with dopamine levels, a chemical in the brain that sends signals to neurons.
Genetic Material
Chromosome DNA
TS may be inherited through genes, which make up DNA.
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Risk Factors

TS is more common in males. Risk factors include:

Symptoms

Symptoms can range from mild to severe. They can occur suddenly, and the length of time they last can vary. Tics may temporarily decrease with concentration or distraction. During times of stress, they may occur more often.Tics can be muscle movements (motor tics) or vocal sounds (vocal tics). They can also be characterized as simple or complex. Here are some common examples:
  • Motor tics
    • Simple—eye blinking, facial grimacing, head jerking, arm or leg thrusting
    • Complex—jumping, smelling, touching things or other people, twirling around
  • Vocal tics
    • Simple—throat clearing, coughing, sniffing, grunting, yelping, barking
    • Complex—saying words or phrases that do not make sense in a given situation, saying obscene or socially unacceptable words (called coprolalia)
Your child may also have other related conditions, such as:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. Your child will probably be referred to a mental health expert. This person will evaluate your child.

Treatment

Work with the doctor to create a treatment plan that is right for your child. Options include:

Education and Counseling

One important part of treatment is for the child and his family to learn about this syndrome. It is also helpful if the child’s teachers, classmates, and friends understand the condition.Your child may also benefit from behavior therapy. This can include doing relaxation techniques and self-monitoring. A technique known as “habit reversal therapy” and other behavioral treatments have proven helpful for some children.

Medication

In most cases, medication is not needed to treat TS. If tics are severe and disrupt your child’s life, medications may be advised to reduce symptoms. If medication is ineffective or otherwise not right for your child, several experimental non-drug treatments have shown promise. Among these are magnetic brain stimulation and—for severely affected children—deep brain stimulation.

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Prevention

There is no known way to prevent TS.

RESOURCES

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
http://www.ninds.nih.gov

Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc.
http://www.tsa-usa.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Tourette Syndrome Association of Ontario
http://www.tourettesyndromeontario.ca

Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada
http://www.tourette.ca

References

Bestha DP, Jeevarakshagan S, Madaan V. Management of tics and Tourette's disorder: an update. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2010;11(11):1813-1822.

Franklin SA, Walther MR, Woods DW. Behavioral interventions for tic disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010;33(3):641-655.

Schub T. Tourette’s syndrome. EBSCO Nursing Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/nursing-reference-center. Updated October 24, 2014. Accessed November 23, 2014.

Tics, Tourette syndrome, and medications. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/info/neurology/diagnose/tics-ts-meds.htm. Updated June 2012. Accessed November 23, 2014.

Tourette syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com. Updated September 26, 2014. Accessed November 23, 2014.

Tourette’s disorder in children. Children’s Hospital Boston website. Available at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1761/mainpageS1761P0.html. November 23, 2014.

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