Mitral Stenosis—Child

(Mitral Valve Stenosis—Child)

Definition

Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the mitral valve in the heart. The mitral valve is in the left side of the heart between the upper and lower chambers of the heart. When working properly, the valve helps to keep blood flowing in the right direction from the upper to the lower chambers.Mitral stenosis makes it difficult for blood to move from the upper and lower chambers. This means there is less blood for the lower chamber to pump out to the body. The blood can also back up in the upper chamber and push back into the lungs.
Mitral Valve Stenosis
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Causes

The most common cause of mitral stenosis is rheumatic fever . This infection may develop after strep throat or scarlet fever. It can scar the heart valves. Mitral stenosis may develop 5-10 years after this infection occurs. Less common or rare causes include:
  • Birth defect
  • Blood clots
  • Tumors
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Other growths that block blood flow through the mitral valve

Risk Factors

The main risk factor for mitral stenosis is rheumatic fever. Other risk factors may include:
  • Being born with mitral valve problems
  • Having other health problems that affect blood flow in the heart

Symptoms

Symptoms are caused by the problems with blood flow and may include:
  • Difficulty breathing, especially during exercise and when lying flat
  • Waking up short of breath in the middle of the night
  • Tiredness
  • Sensation of rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Cough with exertion
  • Coughing up blood
  • Swelling of the legs or feet
  • Frequent respiratory infections
  • Lightheadedness, fainting
  • Chest pain, like squeezing, pressure, or tightness (rare)

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