(VUR—Child; Reflux Nephropathy—Child; Chronic Atrophic Pyelonephritis—Child; Vesico-Ureteric Reflux—Child; Ureteral Reflux—Child)
DefinitionVesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the backward flow of urine. The urine flows from the bladder back into the kidneys.Urine normally flows out from the kidneys. It passes through tubes called ureters. It then flows into the bladder. Each ureter connects to the bladder in a way that prevents urine from flowing back up the ureter. This connection is similar to a one-way valve. When this does not work properly, or if the ureters do not extend far enough into the bladder, urine may flow back up to the kidney. If the urine contains bacteria, the kidney may become infected. The back-up can also put extra pressure on the kidney. This can cause kidney damage.This is a potentially serious condition. It requires care from a doctor. Early treatment and prevention of infections can lead to better outcomes.
|The Urinary Tract|
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CausesCommon causes of VUR include:
- A problem in the way the ureter inserts into the bladder
- A ureter that does not extend far enough into the bladder
- Neurogenic bladder—loss of normal bladder function due to damaged nerves reaching the bladder
Risk FactorsVUR is more common in Caucasians. Other factors that may increase your child’s chance of developing VUR include:
- Family history (especially if a sibling or parent has VUR)
- Birth defects that affect the urinary tract
- Birth defects that affect the spinal cord, such as spina bifida
- Tumors in the spinal cord or pelvis
SymptomsYour child may not have any symptoms. In some cases, VUR is found after a urinary tract or kidney infection is diagnosed. Symptoms of urinary tract infections include:
- Frequent and urgent need to urinate
- Passing small amounts of urine
- Pain in the abdomen or pelvic area
- Burning sensation during urination
- Cloudy, bad-smelling urine
- Increased need to get up at night to urinate
- Blood in the urine
- Leaking urine
- Low back pain or pain along the side of the ribs
- Fever and chills
DiagnosisThe doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may include:
- Blood tests—to assess how well the kidneys are functioning
- Urine tests—to look for evidence of an infection or damage to the kidneys
- Ultrasound —a test that uses sound waves to examine the kidney and bladder
- CT scan —a type of x-ray that uses computers to make pictures of structures in the body
- Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)—a liquid that can be seen on x-rays is placed in the bladder through a catheter; x-rays are taken when the bladder is filled and when urinating
- Note: This test is not done routinely in children aged 2-24 months.
- Radionuclide cystogram (RNC)—a test like VCUG, but uses a different kind of liquid to obtain images
- Intravenous pyelogram —also uses a liquid that can be seen on x-rays; images are taken as the substance travels from the blood (after being injected into a vein) into the kidneys and bladder
- Nuclear scans—a variety of tests using radioactive materials injected into a vein or the bladder to show how well the urinary system is working
TreatmentThe goal for treatment of VUR is to prevent any permanent kidney damage. Treatment options include:
MonitoringTreatment may not be needed right away for grades 1-3. VUR may go away on its own as the ureters develop. The doctor will monitor your child’s condition. This may include:
- Antibiotics—If an infection is present or possible.
- Tests to check how the kidneys are functioning
SurgeryIn most cases, surgery is not needed. If your child does need surgery, the options include:
- Ureteral reimplantation surgery—This can be done in two ways. One requires making an incision above the pubic bone and repositioning the ureters in the bladder. It can also be done laparoscopically, with cameras being inserted through small incisions in the abdomen and/or bladder to do the surgery.
- Endoscopic injection into the ureter—This is a minimally invasive surgery that is done to correct the reflux. A gel is injected where the ureter inserts into the bladder. This can block urine from flowing back up the ureter.
PreventionVUR cannot be prevented in most cases. Avoid complications by getting prompt treatment. If you suspect a urinary tract or kidney infection, call your child's doctor.
National Kidney Foundation
Urology Care Foundation
BC Health Guide
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Valla JS, Steyaert H, et al. Transvesicoscopic Cohen ureteric reimplantation for vesicoureteral reflux in children: A single-centre 5-year experience. J Pediatr Urol. 2009;5(6):466-471.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Cincinnati Children’s website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/info/urinary/diagnose/vesicoureteral-reflux.htm. Updated October 2012. Accessed January 21, 2015.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Boston Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/health-topics/conditions/vesicoureteral-reflux-vur. Accessed January 21, 2015.
Vesicoureteral reflux. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 28, 2014. Accessed January 21, 2015.
4/1/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Choosing wisely. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 26, 2014. Accessed April 1, 2014.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015
- Update Date: 05/05/2014
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