Kidney Stones—Child

(Renal Colic—Child; Renal Lithiasis—Child; Nephrolithiasis—Child; Renal Calculi—Child)


Kidney stones are crystallized material in the urine. These stones form in the kidneys or other parts of the urinary tract. Kidney stones may be made up of a variety of minerals in the blood. The most common are calcium, oxalate or phosphate. Others stones may contain uric acid, struvite, and/or cystine.
Kidney Stone
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Some of the known causes of kidney stones in children include:
  • Too much oxalate in the urine
  • Too much calcium in the urine or blood
  • Too much uric acid in the urine
  • Tiny bacteria a stone can form around
  • Inherited abnormality in the way the body handles cystine
  • Foreign bodies in the urinary tract, like stents or catheters
  • Abnormal function of the urinary tract, such as neurogenic bladder

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your child’s chance of developing kidney stones include:
  • Dehydration —not drinking enough fluids
  • Eating foods high in salt
  • Eating a ketogenic diet to help control epilepsy
  • Mineral content of water your child drinks (hardness or softness of the water)
  • Having family members who have had kidney stones or gout
  • Having kidney stones in the past
  • Being overweight
  • Medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections or metabolic conditions
  • Geographic location—residents of the Southeast United States have an increased risk
  • Limited physical activity
  • Foreign material in the urinary tract, such as a catheter

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