Kidney Stones—Child

(Renal Colic—Child; Renal Lithiasis—Child; Nephrolithiasis—Child; Renal Calculi—Child)

Definition

Kidney stones are crystallized material in the urine. These stones form in the kidneys or other parts of the urinary tract. Kidney stones may be made up of a variety of minerals in the blood. The most common are calcium, oxalate or phosphate. Others stones may contain uric acid, struvite, and/or cystine.
Kidney Stone
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Causes

Some of the known causes of kidney stones in children include:
  • Too much oxalate in the urine
  • Too much calcium in the urine or blood
  • Too much uric acid in the urine
  • Tiny bacteria a stone can form around
  • Inherited abnormality in the way the body handles cystine
  • Foreign bodies in the urinary tract, like stents or catheters
  • Abnormal function of the urinary tract, such as neurogenic bladder

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your child’s chance of developing kidney stones include:
  • Dehydration —not drinking enough fluids
  • Eating foods high in salt
  • Eating a ketogenic diet to help control epilepsy
  • Mineral content of water your child drinks (hardness or softness of the water)
  • Having family members who have had kidney stones or gout
  • Having kidney stones in the past
  • Being overweight
  • Medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections or metabolic conditions
  • Geographic location—residents of the Southeast United States have an increased risk
  • Limited physical activity
  • Foreign material in the urinary tract, such as a catheter

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