Seizure Disorder—Child

(Disorder, Seizure—Child; Epilepsy—Child)

Definition

A seizure is abnormal electrical activity in the brain. When 2 or more seizures occur, it is considered a seizure disorder, also known as epilepsy. While there are many different types of seizures, the main categories are:
  • Generalized seizure—activity occurs throughout the brain
  • Partial seizure, also called a focal seizure—begins within certain areas of the brain
Generalized Seizure
Generalized seizure
Abnormal and excessive electrical activity in the brain.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

Seizure disorder is caused by abnormal brain function. It is often difficult to identify the exact cause, but some factors that may play a role include:
  • Genetic disorder
  • Brain abnormalities or damage such as infection, trauma, tumor, or bleeding into the brain

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your child's chance of seizure disorder include:
  • Premature birth or low birth weight
  • Damage to brain during birth
  • Abnormal brain structure
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Brain infection
  • Brain tumor
  • History of febrile seizures
  • Seizure within the first month after birth
  • Family history of seizure disorder
  • Cysticercosis—an infection caused by a pork tapeworm

Symptoms

Symptoms can vary depending on the type of seizure disorder. These may include:
  • Aura—a sensation at the start of a seizure such as perception of an odd smell or sound, spots appearing in front of the eyes, or stomach sensations
  • Staring, eye blinking, or eye rolling
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Repeated jerking of a single limb
  • Uncontrollable jerking of muscles
  • Hand rubbing, lip smacking, or picking at clothing
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control
  • Drowsiness or confusion after a seizure

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