(Erb-Duchenne Paralysis; Brachial Plexus Palsy)
DefinitionErb’s palsy happens when a baby’s neck is stretched during labor and delivery. This can cause damage to the upper nerves of the neck and shoulder. The nerve damage can then cause certain muscles in the baby’s arm to be weak.
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CausesErb’s palsy is usually caused by:
- Long, difficult delivery
- Delivery of a large baby
- Shoulder dystocia
- Breech delivery
Risk FactorsFactors that increase your chance of delivering a baby with Erb’s palsy include:
- History of delivering larger babies
- History of prolonged labor
- Gestational diabetes
SymptomsOften, Erb’s palsy is discovered after birth due to the typical signs and symptoms, such as:
DiagnosisYou may be asked about your baby's symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Other tests may include:Your baby may need images taken of bodily structures. This can be done with:
TreatmentOver time, the baby can recover movement. Feeling in the arm can also be recovered. In some cases, long-lasting damage can occur.Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan, which may include:
- Physical therapy—This can help keep your baby’s joints and muscles flexible and strong. You will take an active role in moving your baby’s shoulder, arm, and hand. Massage may also be an option.
- Surgery—This may be recommended in cases where there is no improvement.
- Muscle and tendon transfer surgery to improve function
- Joint fusion surgery
PreventionTo help reduce your baby’s chance of Erb’s Palsy, take the following steps:
- Have regular prenatal care visits.
- Tell your doctor if you have had previous difficult deliveries.
- Follow your doctor's instructions if you are diagnosed with gestational diabetes.
American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Brachial plexopathy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 20, 2014. Accessed December 1, 2014.
Erb’s palsy. Patient UK website. Available at: http://www.patient.co.uk/showdoc/40001379. Accessed January 12, 2014. Updated December 1, 2014.
Erb's palsy (brachial plexus birth injury). American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00077. Updated October 2014. Accessed December 1, 2014.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 12/2014
- Update Date: 12/20/2014