Closed Head Injury

(Traumatic Brain Injury)

Definition

A closed head injury is trauma to the head that does not cause a break in the skull. Though the bone may not be broken there can be small fractures. The trauma can also cause damage to soft tissue. The brain can hit the inside of the skull, and other soft tissue can tear, swell, and bleed. This type of trauma may lead to traumatic brain injury which can cause a range of symptoms. Brain injury may be caused by the initial damage or secondary injury. Bleeding and swelling can cause an increase of pressure inside the skull. This pressure can lead to secondary damage and symptoms which may take hours to days to develop.

Causes

Closed head injuries are caused by a blow to the head or severe jerking motions of hte head, neck or body. The most common traumas associated with head injuries include:
  • Accidents (such as automobile, work-related, sports-related)
  • Falls
  • Abuse
Head Injury
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Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your chance of a closed head injury include:
  • Advanced age—increased risk of falls
  • Younger age— increased risk of motor vehicle accidents
  • High-impact sports, such as boxing, basketball, baseball, or football
  • Physical abuse, such as shaken baby syndrome
  • Alcohol or drug abuse

Symptoms

Symptoms can appear right away, or in the days and weeks following the injury. Symptoms may include:
  • Headache
  • Loss of consciousness or sleepiness
  • Dizziness
  • Having trouble with memory or paying attention
  • Double or blurry vision
  • Nausea
  • Problems speaking, communicating, or putting thoughts together
A doctor should be consulted right away if any of the following is present:
  • Seizures
  • Vomiting
  • Pupils that are larger than normal or different size pupils
  • Unexpected mood swings or behavioral changes
  • Drainage of blood or clear fluids from nose or ears
  • Weakness or numbness in arms or legs
If you have been evaluated for a closed head injury and your symptoms are getting worse, get medical help right away.

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