Boutonnière Deformity of Finger
(BD; Buttonhole Deformity; Central Slip Disruption; Central Slip Injury; Deformity of Finger, Boutonnière; Extensor Tendon Rupture; PIP Joint Sprain)
DefinitionBoutonnière deformity (BD) prevents you from straightening your finger. The disorder affects the finger’s system of tendons. The tendons allow you to flex and straighten your finger.
|Tendons in Finger|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
CausesIn BD, the tendon on the top of the finger (called the central slip) is torn or cut from the other tendons. This creates a tear that resembles a buttonhole (or boutonnière in French). The middle joint is forced down and the fingertip bends back. The tendons on this part of the finger are flat and thin. They are prone to injury. If you have BD in the thumb, it affects a joint called the metacarpophalangeal (MCP). BD can be caused by:
- A powerful blow to the finger
- A cut to the finger’s central slip
- An injury to the middle finger joint—called the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint
- A severe burn on the hand
Risk FactorsFactors that may increase your risk of developing BD include:
- Having rheumatoid arthritis or Dupuytren’s contracture
- Participating in contact sports, especially those involving catching and throwing balls such as football and basketball
SymptomsSymptoms may include:
- Pain and swelling on the top of the finger’s middle joint—the PIP joint
- Inability to straighten finger at the middle joint
- Sign of injury (such as fracture or dislocation) to the PIP joint
- Sign of injury (such as fracture or dislocation) to the MCP joint
DiagnosisYou will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done, paying close attention to:
- Muscle strength
- Joint damage
- Range of motion
- Presence of swelling
- Evidence of infection
- Tenderness in the finger
TreatmentTalk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
MedicationYour doctor may recommend the following medications:
- Corticosteroids—to reduce inflammation
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)—to reduce pain and inflammation
Nonsurgical ApproachesFor milder cases, the treatment is nonsurgical and may involve:
- Applied to the middle joint to fully extend it
- Used for 3-6 weeks
- Stretching and strengthening exercises
- Other techniques: massage, ultrasound therapy, electrical stimulation
SurgerySurgery is needed in severe cases. For example, when the tendon is cut or when the deformity has lasted a long time. Surgery generally does not return your finger to the way it was working before the injury. But, you may have some improvement. After surgery, you will have to do exercises to strengthen the finger.
PreventionTo help reduce your chance of getting BD, take the following steps:
- Wear the proper equipment when playing sports.
- If you have rheumatoid arthritis, ask you doctor about ways to protect your joints.
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
National Institutes of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation
Canadian Physiotherapy Association
Boutonniere deformity of the finger. Orthogate website. Available at: http://www.orthogate.org/patient-education/hand/boutonniere-deformity-of-the-finger.html. Updated July 27, 2006. Accessed September 3, 2014.
Dupuytren disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 15, 2014. Accessed September 3, 2014.
To P, Watson JT. Boutonniere deformity. J Hand Surg Am. 2011 Jan; 36(1):139-42.
- Reviewer: Teresa Briedwell, DPT, OCS
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/03/2014
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