Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
Proponents of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) claim it is a breakthrough treatment for those plagued with traumatic memories and other psychological problems. But does it actually work?
Who Developed EMDR?EMDR was developed by psychologist Francine Shapiro, PhD, in 1987 when she discovered, by chance, that she could ease her own disturbing thoughts by moving her eyes rapidly from left to right. From there, Dr. Shapiro studied the effectiveness of EMDR on people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Her research showed that EMDR held promise in reducing flashbacks, nightmares, negative thoughts, and avoidant behaviors. Since then, mental health professionals have received training in EMDR and use it regularly with patients suffering from traumatic memories. According to the EMDR International Association, EMDR is often used to treat patients with trauma resulting from:
- Sexual assaults
- Other violent crimes
- Airline and train crashes
- Automobile and industrial accidents
What Can You Expect?If you are seeking EMDR treatment, the EMDR International Association recommends that you find an EMDR-trained mental health professional who will guide you through eight phases of treatment. The number of sessions and phases within each session varies from patient to patient; however, the eight phases of treatment are essential. They include:
Phase One: Patient HistoryThe therapist will ask questions about your mental health history to evaluate your suitability for treatment. You will be asked about the level of your distress, current life stressors, and medical conditions. The therapist will then set up a treatment plan.
Phase Two: Preparation PhaseThe therapist will introduce you to EMDR, explain how it works, and let you know what you can expect. You will be informed about the possibility of increased symptoms between sessions. You may be given relaxation exercises to use before and between EMDR sessions.
Phase Three: AssessmentYou will be asked to identify the traumatic memory or an image from that memory. Then, you will be asked to think about a negative thought you have about yourself in relation to the traumatic event, such as “I am a bad person.” Next, the therapist will ask you to come up with a positive thought about yourself, such as “I am a lovable person” and to rate how much you believe that thought. Lastly, you will focus on the traumatic image and the negative thought you have about yourself and rate your level of emotional upset using a rating scale.
Phase Four: DesensitizationYou will be asked to focus on your disturbing feelings while letting your eyes follow the therapist’s fingers as they move rapidly back and forth across a span of about 12 inches. This procedure is repeated in sets, each of which last from 10 seconds to more than 1 minute. This will continue until your emotional distress is greatly reduced.In some cases, instead of eye movement, the therapist may ask you to tap alternate hands on a chair rest, or may use alternating sounds in your ears. Other more advanced strategies may also be used.
Phase Five: Cognitive RestructuringIn this phase, the positive belief will be strengthened in an effort to replace the negative belief associated with the traumatic memory. You will be asked to concentrate on the positive belief during the eye movement sets. This will continue until you reach a specific rate on the scale that the therapist is using. When evoking the traumatic memory, this should help you believe the positive thought about yourself.
Phase Six: Awareness of Bodily SensationAs you hold the traumatic image and positive belief in your mind, you will focus on any tension that arises in your body. During the following sets of eye movements, or other desensitization techniques, the therapist will help you reduce bodily tension.
Phase Seven: ClosureYour therapist will talk to you about disturbing thoughts, images, or emotions that may occur between sessions and may ask you to keep a log or journal. While these symptoms may be uncomfortable, they are interpreted as a positive sign.
Phase Eight: ReevaluationBefore each new session, you will be reevaluated to see if the treatment effects have been maintained. The therapist will continue to work with you on additional traumatic memories and images, following the same eight-phase procedure.