DefinitionGilbert syndrome is a genetic liver disorder. It causes levels of bilirubin to rise above normal levels. Bilirubin is a yellow chemical by-product of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the red pigment in blood cells that is usually excreted by the liver as bile.
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CausesGilbert syndrome is usually caused by an inherited genetic abnormality. Symptoms occur when there is an interference with the liver enzyme that is important in the elimination of bilirubin. This causes the levels of bilirubin to increase in the blood, which may produce symptoms such as jaundice.
Risk FactorsGilbert syndrome is more common in males, and in those with a family history.
SymptomsOften, there are no symptoms of Gilbert syndrome. However, people who do have symptoms may experience:
- Yellowing of the skin known as jaundice
- Jaundice of the whites of the eyes
- Abdominal pain
- Loss of appetite
- Fatigue and weakness
- Darkening of the urine
DiagnosisYour doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may include:
- Blood tests
- Reticulocyte count
- Total and direct bilirubin
- Liver function tests
TreatmentNo treatment is necessary for Gilbert syndrome. Usually, symptoms come and go.
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