Atrial Septal Defect
(ASD; “Hole” in the Heart)
DefinitionThe atria are the the upper chambers of the heart. An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall between the left and right chambers of the atria. It is present at birth.Blood passes from the left atrium to the right atrium in babies born with ASD. This eventually can cause problems in the lungs.
|Heart Chambers and Valves|
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CausesASD is occurs during fetal development. It is present at birth. Some cases may be caused by a genetic defect or abnormality inherited from a parent. Others can be caused by illnesses suffered by the mother during pregnancy.Most of the time, the cause is unknown.
Risk FactorsFactors that increase the risk of having a child with an atrial septal defect include:
- Smoking by the mother during pregnancy
- Down syndrome
SymptomsSymptoms of atrial septal defect include:
- Tiring easily during activity
- Rapid breathing, difficulty breathing, or shortness of breath
- Ongoing respiratory infections
- Poor growth
- Irregular, rapid beating of the heart
- Poor appetite
DiagnosisYour doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A murmur may be heard when listening to the chest with a stethoscope.Your doctor may need pictures of your heart. This can be done with:
- Doppler image
- Cardiac catheterization
- Chest x-ray
- MRI of the heart —mostly done in adults
TreatmentSmall defects that produce few or no symptoms may not require treatment. Many defects may close on their own without treatment. Talk with your child's doctor about the best treatment plan. Treatment options include:
SurgerySurgery may be needed in patients with large defects if they cause significant symptoms.A new procedure may also be performed. It closes the opening without surgery. A heart catheter is inserted in the inner part of the thigh. A closure device is inserted through this catheter.
AntibioticsIf your condition is repaired through surgery, you may need to take an antibiotic before you have dental procedures.
PreventionThe condition is a congenital defect with unknown causes. There are no preventive measures. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications.
American Association of Family Physicians
American Heart Association
Canadian Adult Congenital Heart Network
Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation
Antibiotic prophylaxis. American Dental Association's MouthHealthy.org website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/p/Premedication-or-Antibiotics.aspx. Accessed July 11, 2013.
Atrial septal defect. KidsHealth.org website.Available at: http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/medical/heart/asd.html.Updated May 2013. Accessed July 11, 2013.
Patent foramen ovale and other atrial septal defects. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 29, 2013. Accessed July 11, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO; Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 07/2013
- Update Date: 05/11/2013
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